An Annotated Bibliography of Eastern Redcedar

Control of Eastern Redcedar

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446. Alexander, H. 1993. Controlling juniper: fire and goats, a combination. Rangelands. 15(6): 257-259.

447. Bernardo, D.J.; Engle, D.M.; McCollum, E.T. 1988. An economic assessment of risk and returns from prescribed burning on tallgrass prairie. Journal of Range Management. 41(2): 178-183.

448. Bernardo, D.J.; Engle, D.M.; McCollum, F.T. 1992. An economic assessment of risk and returns from prescribed burning to control eastern redcedar. In: Bidwell, T.G.; Titus, D.; Cassels, D., eds. Range Research Highlights, 1983-1991. Circ. E. 905. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Cooperative Extension Service: 36-38.

449. Bidwell, T.G.; Moseley, M.E. 1989. Eastern redcedar: Oklahoma's centennial brush problem. Circ. E. 892. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Cooperative Extension Service. 4 p.

450. Bidwell, T.G.; Stritzke, J.F.; Engle, D.M. 1989. Eastern redcedar update, 1989. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Cooperative Extension Service. 4 p.

451. Bidwell, T.G.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Engle, D.M.; Stritzke, J.F.; Anderson, S. 1991. Eastern redcedar update--1991. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Cooperative Extension Service. 4 p.

452. Briggs, J.M.; Gibson, D.J. 1992. Effect of fire on tree spatial patterns in a tallgrass prairie landscape. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 119(3): 300-307.

Spatial patterns of trees invading a tallgrass prairie in northeast Kansas, U.S.A., were examined using a Geographical Information System. Without burning and with adequate moisture levels, the number of trees increased over a 5-year period by over 60 percent, while in an area burned annually the number of trees decreased. Under a variety of burning regimes Juniperus virginiana and Celtis occidentalis were significantly more uniform in their distribution pattern than Populus deltoides and Gleditsia triacanthos. In addition, three tree species (G. triacanthos, J. virginiana, and U. americana) had a significant increase in the degree of aggregation with increasing tree height, while C. occidentalis showed no relationship between aggregation and tree height. There were significant associations between adult and juvenile trees at various scales, with bird-dispersed J. virginiana having a higher critical distance (39 m) than wind-dispersed G. triacanthos and U. americana. The spatial pattern of tree species appears to be affected by the means of dispersion; trees with wind-dispersed seeds had clumped distributions, whereas most trees with bird-dispersed seeds were regular to random in their dispersion patterns. The spatial pattern of trees invading tallgrass prairie is a function of the burning regime dispersal vectors, habitat availability, and reproductive mode.

453. Buehring, N.W.; Santlemann, P.W.; Elwell, H. 1970. Responses of eastern redcedar to various control procedures. Southern Weed Science Society. 23: 244.

Early spring burning gave excellent control of Juniperus virginiana less than 18 inches high, but the use of a rotary brushcutter against stems of 0.5-1.25 in basal diameter resulted in 22 percent regrowth. Undiluted picloram-K injected in winter, spring, and summer at 1 and 3 ml per inch of d.b.h. gave good top kill, but ester and amine formulations of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D at 1 and 3 ml per inch of d.b.h. were ineffective. Among granular materials tested in spring and summer, picloram 10 percent a.i. at 3-6 teaspoonfuls and chlorfenac at 9 teaspoonfuls per inch of d.b.h. gave good control, but dicamba at 1, 3, and 6 teaspoonfuls, fenuron at 1, 2, and 3 teaspoonfuls and monuron-TCA at 3, 6, and 9 teaspoonfuls were inadequate. Foliar + stem sprays giving more than 80 percent kill of trees 2-4 feet high and 7-8 feet high included paraquat at 1 and 2 lb/acre + 0.5 percent wetter and 4 lb/acre (alone), dicamba at 3 and 6 lb/acre, dicamba at 2 lb/acre + 2,4,5-T ester at 4 lb/acre, 2,4-D + dichlorprop at 4 lb/acre each or 8 lb/acre each, and AMS at 50 and 75 lb/100 gal spray. A foliar application of 2,4,5-T amine + picloram, each at 2 lb/acre in 10 gallon spray, gave more than 70 percent top-kill.

454. Buehring, N.W.; Santelmann, P.W.; Elwell, H.M. 1971. Responses of eastern redcedar to control procedures (Juniperus virginiana). Journal of Range Management. 24(5): 378-382.

455. Crathorne, G.L.; Scott, W.T.; Ritty, P.M. 1982. Eastern redcedar control in Kansas: control of Juniperus virginiana on rangeland. Down to Earth. 38(1): 1-6.

456. Dalrymple, R.L. 1969. Cedar control in southern Oklahoma. Southern Weed Science Society. 22: 272-273.

457. Egler, F.E. 1950. Herbicide effects in Connecticut vegetation, 1949. Botanical Gazette. 112(1): 76-85. 3 refs.

The fourth report on this project describes inter alia experiments with various preparations of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T esters (separately or together) in aqueous solution, used as foliage sprays, applied to wounds made in stems, and painted or sprayed in winter on stems with bark intact. The advantages of bark treatment were so marked that foliage spraying of woody plants was discontinued in midsummer. Broadleaved herbs were most easily controlled by spring spraying. The various esters represented in the preparations appeared equal in effect, and a concentration of 0.25 percent appeared entirely adequate. Some herbs required several sprayings. All ferns were comparatively resistant. Blackberries were controlled by cutting in winter and spraying new shoots as they appeared; they were particularly sensitive to 2,4,5-T. The base of woody plants may be sprayed in winter and possibly in summer. Concentrations of 20-25 percent were highly effective, and concentrations as low as 5-10 percent might possibly work. Since in some plants there was little downward movement of the killing effect, treatments should be made below the lowermost branches or at least to their bases. Bark sprays, though highly effective, were slow acting, and plants so treated may come into leaf and grow for 5 months after the treatment. Species previously unaffected, e.g., Picea abies, Pinus strobus, Kalmia latifolia, Juniperus communis var. depressa and J. virginiana, now appear to be controllable by a single application.

458. Elwell, H.M. 1948. Preliminary report of chemicals for brush control. Oklahoma Crops and Soils. 41-44. 4 refs.

Tests were made of aqueous spray solutions containing 2,000 p.p.m. of 2,4-D. The highest percent of plants affected occurred on brush 4-7 feet high. The 2,4-D spray did not seem to be effective on the larger trees. One application of spray produced 80-95 percent defoliation of Rhus glabra, Prunus angustifolia, Robinia pseudoacacia, Gleditsia triacanthos, Diospyros virginiana, and Sassafras varifolium; 50-75 percent defoliation of Quercus marilandica, Q. stellata, Q. muehlenbergii, and Salix nigra; it had no effect on Ulmus spp., Prosopis spp., Celtis spp., Hicoria buckleyi, Maclura pomifera, and Juniperus virginiana. In general, the 2,4-D appears to cause a gradual dying of the trees and brush. The leaves turn brown, and often the twigs curl and twist in 2-3 weeks. The plants most readily affected soon developed an abnormal knotty growth of the cambium layer along the main stems, which often caused cracking. Spray was not toxic to native grasses but killed broadleaved plants such as cotton and legumes. It is light and drifts readily. Trees, brush, and other plants sprayed with ammate (1 pound per gallon of water) began to turn 24-48 hours. All the species mentioned above were affected. Terminal twigs were often killed by one application, but a second or third application was sometimes necessary to completely kill regrowth. Ammate spray appears to be heavy, and drifting of the mist can be controlled. For this reason, it can be used advantageously for controlling underbrush, weeds, etc., in orchards, gardens, etc. Experiments were also made in poison-girdling near ground level with various preparations of 2,4-D, ammate, and sodium arsenite. In general, poor results were obtained with the 2,4-D preparations. Ammate was effective on small trees. Sodium arsenite was the only chemical that killed large trees. None of the chemicals were effective when applied in holes punched in trees. The best time for girdling and poisoning seems to be during a summer dormant period, or about 2-3 weeks before leaves fall.

459. Elwell, H.M.; Santelmann, P.W.; Stritzke, J.F.; Greer, H. 1974. Brush control research in Oklahoma. Bull. B-712. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Agriculture Experiment Station. 46 p. 28 refs.

Reviews research dating from early experiments up to the present, including details of the control of Juniperus ashei, J. virginiana, Carya spp., Crataegus spp., Diospyros virginiana, Quercus marilandica, Q. stellata, Ulmus alata, and U. americana.

460. Engle, D.M.; Kulbeth, J.D. 1992. Fuel and weather related to kill of eastern redcedar from fire. In: Bidwell, T.G.; Titus, D.; Cassels, D., eds. Range Research Highlights, 1983-1991. Circ. E. 905. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Cooperative Extension Service: 14-15.

461. Engle, D.M.; Stritzke, J.F. 1992. Enhancing control of eastern redcedar through individual plant ignition following prescribed burning. Journal of Range Management. 45(5): 493-495. 12 refs.

Fire-scorched crowns of living eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) were ignited using a propane torch in three studies on range sites in Payne County, Oklahoma. In the first study, 98 fire-scorched trees were ignited 20-64 days after a controlled burn. Igniting scorched trees in several positions killed 90 percent of the crown and two-thirds of the trees regardless of their size. Logistic regression models indicated that reburning was more effective on trees already badly damaged by the controlled burn. In the second study, one person equipped with a self-contained backpack propane burner used single-point ignition to treat an average of one tree every 17 seconds (range 11-20 seconds) on 0.25-ha plots. Effectiveness of the single-point ignition declined with increasing tree size. In the third study of operational effectiveness, the average time required to burn a tree was 19 seconds in eight 32-ha pastures at a cost of $0.03/treated tree.

462. Engle, D.M.; Stritzke, J.F. 1992. Igniting crowns of partially scorched juniper. In: Bidwell, T.G.; Titus, D.; Cassels, D., eds. Range Research Highlights, 1983-1991. Circ. E. 905. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Cooperative Extension Service: 15-16.

463. Engle, D.M.; Stritzke, J.F.; Claypool, P.L. 1988. Effect of paraquat plus prescribed burning on eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana). Weed Technology. 2(2): 172-174. 11 refs.

Paraquat was evaluated as a pre-treatment for J. virginiana before spring burning in tallgrass prairie. Wetting sprays of paraquat at 0.3 or 0.6 g/liter were applied to crowns of small (0.8-1.5 m), medium (1.5-2.5 m), and large (2.5-5.0 m) J. virginiana trees in August 1983 and 1984 before prescribed burns in the spring of 1984 and 1985. Paraquat alone at 0.6 g/liter killed about 90 percent of the crown of small trees but as little as 30 percent of the crown of large trees. Paraquat pre-treatments increased post-fire damage to small- and medium-size trees and partially compensated for light fine fuel loading.

464. Engle, D.M.; Bernardo, D.J.; Hunter, T.D.; Stritzke, J.F.; Bidwell, T.G. 1992. A decision support system for eastern redcedar control. In: Bidwell, T.G.; Titus, D.; Cassels, D., eds. Range Research Highlights, 1983-1991. Circ. E. 905. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Cooperative Extension Service: 16.

465. Fletchall, O.H. 1956. Brush control with CMU in bands and grids. Proceedings, 13th Annual North Central Weed Control Conference: 70. (Weed Abstracts. 6(6): 1357.)

An area of brush regrowth (originally cleared about 1935) was treated in July 1955 with monuron 15 lb/acre applied as a dry powder in three ways: (1) in 2-inch strips, 4, 8, 12, and 16 feet apart; (2) in a grid pattern with 2-inch strips at right angles to each other 4, 8, 12, and 16 feet apart each way; and (3) in a narrow circular band around each tree, about 1 foot from the base. The mean percent defoliation from all treatments 14 months later was: Quercus stellata 91; Quercus velutina 90; Q. alba 76; Carya spp. 73; Juniperus virginiana 49; Juglans spp. 25. Natural defoliation due to drought ranged from 10 to 20 percent for Quercus and Carya spp. and was little less than that indicated for the treated J. virginiana and Juglans spp. Method (3) gave the most rapid and the greatest (95 percent) defoliation; (2) gave 89 percent and (1) gave 84 percent. Trees that were within 2 feet of a monuron strip averaged 88 percent defoliation compared with 78-79 percent for those further away. Less grass was killed with (1) than with (3).

466. Herron, J.W. 1958. A new concept of brush control using a pelleted material. Proceedings, 15th Annual North Central Weed Control Conference: 27-28. (Weed Abstracts. 8(8): 1503.)

Preliminary results indicate that fenuron pellets at 12-18 lb/acre will kill or severely injure Fraxinus americana, Carya spp., Quercus spp., Ulmus spp., Morus alba, Maclura pomifera, Juniperus virginiana, Acer sp., Rhus radicans, Celtis occidentalis, Cercis canadensis, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Sassafras sp. Rhamnus caroliniana was resistant.

467. Keating, B. 1991. A different kind of rodeo. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Agriculture Experiment Station. 2(2): 10-11.

468. Kucera, C.L.; Ehrenreich, J.H.; Brown, C. 1963. Some effects of fire on tree species in Missouri prairie. Iowa Journal of Science. 38(3): 179-185. 7 refs.

The effects of prairie fire on young trees of four broadleaved species and Juniperus virginiana were observed under different burning conditions. Drier fuel, combined with greater vapor deficits, resulted in higher percents of individuals killed back. In the hardwoods, less crown damage resulted in less sprout production. Fire may retard development of young trees in tall-grass prairie, and further studies are needed on the relationships of fire in the forest/ prairie transition.

469. McNeil, W.K.; Stritzke, J.F.; Basler, E. 1984. Absorption, translocation and degradation of tebuthiuron and hexazinone in woody species. Weed Science. 32(6): 739-743. 22 refs.

Seedlings of Ulmus alata, Quercus macrocarpa, Juglans nigra, Juniperus virginiana, and Pinus taeda were treated in nutrient solution with ring-labeled 14C-tebuthiuron or 14C-hexazinone. Species showed differing rates of root and foliar uptake of both herbicides. Results suggest that reduced translocation may account for tebuthiuron resistance in J. nigra, and herbicide degradation may account for hexazinone resistance in P. taeda.

470. Melichar, M.W.; Geyer, W.A.; Strine, J.H.; Ritty, P.M. 1985. Oil substitutes in basal sprays of Garlon 4 herbicide. Down to Earth. 41(2): 21-24. 7 refs.

In field trials at Manhattan, Kansas, in 1980-1981, control of Juniperus virginiana, Fraxinus pennsyl-vanica, Celtis occidentalis, and Juglans nigra by basal sprays of Garlon (triclopyr) diluted with various polyglycol derivatives was studied. The standard treatment of 2 percent Garlon in oil gave 80 percent defoliation of J. nigra and 100 percent defoliation of the other trees, and no resprouting occurred as the Garlon killed the entire root systems. The herbicide/polyglycol mixtures did not provide consistent tree control.

471. Neely, D.; Crowley, W.R., Jr. 1974. Toxicity of soil-applied herbicides to shade trees. Horticultural Science. 9(2): 147-149. 8 refs.

Seventeen commercial products containing 11 herbicides used to control weeds in lawns were tested for three consecutive seasons at rates recommended by the manufacturers and at three times those rates in established plots of several ornamental trees. Bandane, benefin, bensulide, 2,4-D, DCPA, DSMA, siduron, silvex, 2,4,5-T, and trifluralin were not phytotoxic, but dicamba consistently caused damage, especially at the higher application rate. The sensitivity of tree species to dicamba varied with soil type and rainfall. White and blue spruce (Picea glauca and P. pungens) were readily killed; tulip trees (Liriodendron tulipifera), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos), pin oak (Quercus palustris), and lime (Tilia cordata) trees suffered twig damage; walnut (Juglans nigra), ash (Fraxinus spp.), maple (Acer spp.), and redbud (Cercis canadensis) trees suffered leaf distortion; and redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) trees were unaffected.

472. Owensby, C.E. 1975. Controlling eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana). Tech. Rep. 457. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University, Cooperative Extension Service. 4 p.

473. Penfound, W.T. 1968. Influence of a wildfire in the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma. Ecology. 49(5): 1003-1006. 14 refs.

After a severe fire in 1963, 92 percent of the crowns were killed in Quercus stellata/Juniperus virginiana forest (a); few oaks and no J. virginiana coppiced. In neighboring Q. marilandica/ Q. stellata forest (b), only 66 percent of the crowns were killed and 70 percent of the trees coppiced. The results are attributed either to the greater fire resistance of Q. marilandica or to the greater heat of the fire in (a) caused by the extreme inflammability of J. virginiana. A reversion of (a), but not of (b), to grassland or scrub is predicted.

474. Peters, R.A. 1957. Observations on the effectiveness of polychlorobenzoic acid for pasture brush control. Proceedings, 11th Northwest Weed Control Conference: 236-237. (Weed Abstracts. 6(7): 1019.)

Overall foliar applications of polychlorobenzoic acid, 8 and 16 lb/100 gal water killed Juniperus communis, J. virginiana, and Pinus strobus. Equisetum sp. was effectively controlled by 4 lb/100 gal, while bracken showed considerable dieback and no regrowth.

475. Phillips, F.D. 1987. Burning improves Oklahoma rangeland. Soil and Water Conservation. 8(7): 5.

476. Poulsen, W.G. 1964. Weed control in Utah conifer tree plantings. Utah Farm & Home Science. 25(1): 22-23.

Simazine 80 W was tried on soils varying from loam to clay-loam, planted with Picea pungens, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus ponderosa, and Pseudotsuga taxifolia. Four areas were sprayed in November and one in May, using various dosages in 6 gal water/1,000 ft2. The trees were in their second growing season on three areas and in their fifth season on the remaining ones. P. ponderosa became chlorotic when 1.25-1.75 oz/1,000 ft were used in November, but suffered no ill effects from the 2-oz rate in May. For annual weeds, 0.5 oz was adequate. Little additional effect was gained from rates greater than 1.25 oz. Physalis subglabrata was not controlled, even at the 1.75-oz rate. In general, 1 oz/1,000 ft2 is recommended for light soils low in organic matter, and 1.25 oz/1,000 ft2 are recommended for heavy clay and loam soils high in organic matter, applied at almost any season, though autumn is preferable where winter annuals are to be controlled.

477. Poulsen, W.G. 1965. Simazine weed control. Tree Planters Notes. 73: 1-2.

Describes experiments in six areas in Utah, applying simazine at various rates to conifer transplant beds, which achieved 77-100 percent control of weeds, and reduced costs of weed control by 50-75 percent. Pinus ponderosa appeared to be more sensitive to the chemical than Picea pungens, Juniperus virginiana, and Pseudotsuga taxifolia, and simazine should be applied to it in the spring and at lower rates.

478. Smith, S.D. 1987. Ecology and control of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.). Dissertation Abstracts International, B. Science and Engineering. 47(11): 4376-B. 207 p.

Juniperus virginiana is widespread east of the Rocky Mountains and, in the last few decades, has spread across many areas of the midwest that were formerly pure grassland. Because the tree reduces forage production, studies were made of the control of J. virginiana with herbicides and of the ecological relations between the tree and its associated understory herbaceous vegetation. Hexazinone, picloram, and tebuthiuron gave at least 80 percent kill of J. virginiana. Germination of native grass was inhibited by extracts of both foliage and duff of J. virginiana, but neither extract had great effects on height or weight growth. Overall forage production was 83 percent less under the tree canopy than in adjacent open areas. Soil water content and understory light intensities were less under the canopy than in open areas on all dates when differences were measured. Establishment of J. virginiana was less when grass was clipped to 5 cm rather than 25 cm. Vegetation regrew on depauperate areas underneath tree canopies within 2 years of tree removal.

479. Starker, T.J. 1932. Fire resistance of the trees of the Northeast United States. Forest Worker. 3(3): 8-9.

Redcedar was ranked 20th, with only northern white-cedar and balsam fir being considered more susceptible.

480. Steinert, W.G.; Stritzke, J.F. 1975. Karbutilate and tebuthiuron for control of brush on pasture land. Southern Weed Science Society. 28: 246.

In studies during 1972 and 1973, soil applications of tebuthiuron at 12 and 16 lb/acre controlled eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) less than 3 feet high but had little effect when the trees were taller than 5 feet. Blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica) and American elm (Ulmus americana) were well controlled by tebuthiuron, but persimmon (Diospyros sp.) was only moderately susceptible. In a study in which karbutilate and tebuthiuron were basally injected into Q. marilandica, winged elm (Ulmus alata), white ash (Fraxinus americana), and hawthorn (Crataegus sp.), karbutilate showed poor activity against the first three species during the first year and only fair activity against Crataegus sp. Good first-year activity was observed with tebuthiuron on all species. In a large-plot, soil placement study carried out with the two herbicides, the first-year activity of tebuthiuron was increased by concentrating the herbicide in spots every 6 or 9 feet compared with a broadcast treatment. Karbutilate showed little activity during the first season.

481. Sternitzke, D.; Stritzke, J.F. 1983. Effectiveness of various herbicides for the control of eastern redcedar. Southern Weed Science Society. 36: 247.

0.12-0.48 kg dicamba, 0.18-0.72 kg glyphosate or fosamine, and 0.06-0.24 kg paraquat, picloram or triclopyr/100 liter spray were applied to Juniperus virginiana to run-off. Additional treatments were the lowest rate of each chemical + 5 percent SA-77 or 1 percent diesel oil. Chemicals were applied in July or September 1981 or April, July, or September 1982, and assessments were made 4-6 weeks after treatment; leaf moisture readings were also made in spring 1982 for the 1981 treatments. In general, the order of efficiency for foliage desiccation was dicamba = paraquat = picloram > glyphosate > fosamine = triclopyr. Greatest leaf DM reduction was given by 0.24 kg paraquat/100 liter applied in July with 17.6 percent moisture the following spring compared with 42.4 percent moisture on the controls.

482. Stritzke, J.F. 1978. Comparative phytotoxicity of tebuthiuron and Velpar [3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione] on woody plants. Weed Science Society: 44-45.

In field studies, Gleditsia triacanthos and Gymnocladus dioicus appeared to be susceptible to tebuthiuron and somewhat tolerant of Velpar (hexazinone), whereas Quercus rubra was more susceptible to Velpar. Pinus echinata was tolerant of Velpar and susceptible to tebuthiuron, while the reverse was true of Juniperus virginiana and Diospyros virginiana. A number of species showed similar responses to the herbicides. The activity of both compounds was reduced in soils relatively high in clay and OM.

483. Stritzke, J.F.; Rollins, D. 1984. Eastern redcedar and its control. Weeds Today. 15(3): 7-8.

The distribution morphology and ecology of Juniperus virginiana in the eastern U.S.A. and Canada is described, and methods of control by herbicides, burning and mechanical means are reviewed.

484. Stritzke, J.F.; Engle, D.M.; McCollum, F.E. 1991. Vegetation management in the Cross Timbers: response of woody species to herbicides and burning. Weed Technology. 5(2): 400-405. 20 refs.

Brush control and woody plant community structure in the Cross Timbers of Oklahoma resulting from treatments with herbicides and fire were compared. Tebuthiuron and triclopyr were applied alone and in combination with burning at 2.2 kg/ha in March and June 1983, respectively. The pastures were burned with strip headfires in late spring of 1985, 1986, and 1987. Both herbicides were effective on the dominant overstory brush species, Quercus marilandica and Q. stellata, and this resulted in good reduction of canopy cover of brush initially. However, effects of triclopyr were short-lived because of ineffectiveness on many of the other broadleaved species, including Ulmus americana, Bumelia lanuginosa, Celtis occidentalis, Cornus drummondii, and Symphoricarpos orbiculatus. Crown reduction and tree kill of these broadleaved species was usually better with tebuthiuron than with triclopyr. Neither herbicide was effective on Juniperus virginiana. Better brush control, associated with tebuthiuron, resulted in better fine fuel release and by 1988, burning was having a significant effect on woody plants in the tebuthiuron-treated plots.

485. Sucoff, E.I. 1968. N,N'-dinitroethylene-diamine retards growth of Red cedar and American arborvitae. Horticultural Science. 3(1): 42-43.

Single applications at 4,000 and 100 p.p.m. reduced the height growth of Thuja occidentalis by 88 and 36 percent, respectively and dry-weight increment by 54 and 9 percent, respectively. Corresponding figures for Juniperus virginiana were 64 and 9 percent and 49 and 15 percent. The number and length of internodes of J. virginiana were reduced. The effect at 4,000 p.p.m. persisted longer than 90 days.

486. Voeller, J.E.; Holt, H.A. 1973. Continued evaluation of the Hypo-Hatchet for woody species control. Southern Weed Science Society. 26: 354-360.

In a continuation of trials with the Hypo-Hatchet, aqueous solutions of picloram plus or minus 2,4-D were effective against Acer rubrum, Carya sp., and Quercus sp. and also controlled Juniperus virginiana. The amine formulation of 2,4-D was also very effective against Quercus sp. and Carya sp. but lacked activity against A. rubrum. The Hypo-Hatchet appeared to be capable of treating more stems/hour than could basal injections.

487. Wade, K.A.; Menges, E.S. 1986. Effects of fire on invasion and community structure of a southern Indiana cedar barrens. Indiana Academy of Science. 96: 273-286. 40 refs.

A floristic and community summary of Leavenworth Barrens Nature Preserve (LBNP), a northern example of a limestone cedar (Juniperus virginiana) barrens, showed high floristic diversity, including rare species with high affinities to more southerly limestone glades. Ordination and classification of 1-year herb-layer abundance showed that the composition of the herbaceous community is strongly related to the degree of shading by woody species. Plants most typical of glades, barrens, and prairies occur in the most open habitat. Forested portions add to the overall diversity of LBNP, but woody encroachment into open glade-like areas excludes species most typical of cedar glades. Initial findings indicated that controlled burning may be useful for maintaining barrens by discouraging or excluding some woody species. At least 10 herbaceous glade and prairie species were more abundant on burned than on unburned areas.

488. Wilson, J.S.; Schmidt, T.L. 1990. Controlling eastern redcedar on rangelands and pastures. Rangelands. 12(3): 156-158. 5 refs.

Reviews the control of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) in range lands and pastures. Methods discussed are removal by hand, machine control, chemical control, and burning.

489. Wittwer, R.F.; Engle, D.M. 1985. Proceedings, eastern redcedar in Oklahoma conference. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Cooperative Extension Service. 98 p.

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