An Annotated Bibliography of Eastern Redcedar

Ecological Relationships

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605. Allard, H.A.; Leonard, E.C. 1943. The vegetation and floristics of Bull Run Mountain, Virginia. Castanea. 8: 1-64. Ukrainian.

An ecological and floristic survey was made of the Bull Run Mountain and Pond Mountain highlands of Virginia, located about 40 miles from Washington, DC. This paper gives a brief account of the vegetation of the region and lists all the vascular plants collected or known to occur within the area. The original forest of the Bull Run highlands was oak/chestnut in composition, the dominant species being Quercus montana (the major dominant) and Castanea dentata, together with Quercus rubra, Nyssa sylvatica, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Carya. Following the elimination of chestnut, the composition of the forest is rapidly changing into an oak/hickory association. On the thin, sandy, porous soils of some of the drier ridges, Quercus montana forms almost pure stands with hickory reproduction becoming established in some situations. These dominant chestnut oak stands represent an edaphic climax; the original climax type on the deeper and moister soils was largely a mixed mesophytic forest of white oak, chestnut oak, red oak, black oak, black gum, hickory, tulip poplar, white ash, and some beech. Abandoned lands and pastures as a rule revert quickly to forest, mainly of pines, cedars, black locust, persimmon, and tulip poplar. The most aggressive conifers are scrub pine (P. virginiana) and redcedar (Juniperus virginiana var. crebra). Other conifers found in the area are Pinus strobus, P. pungens, P. rigida, and P. echinata.

606. Anonymous. 1949. Influence of vegetative cover. Southern Lumberman. 179(2249): 177.

Soil porosity tests at the Caltoun Experimental Forest near Union, South Carolina, showed that permeability rates under hardwoods are 25 times more rapid, and under softwoods 8 times more rapid than on bare clay. The soil under young redcedars (Juniperus virginiana) has 3 times the volume of open pores and 20 times the permeability of adjacent soils in the open.

607. Arend, J.L. 1950. Influence of fire and soil on distribution of eastern redcedar in the Ozarks. Journal of Forestry. 48(2): 129-130. 2 refs.

The distribution of Juniperus virginiana is so closely correlated with shallow limestone soils and rough topography that these sites are often considered the characteristic habitat of the tree. Systematic observations in the Arkansas Ozarks indicate, however, that redcedar does not prefer these shallow soils, but that competition and fire wipe it out on the better sites. Contrary to general belief, soil acidity appears to have little effect on the distribution of this species. The reduced acidity of the soil under dense and long-established stands of eastern redcedar probably results from the relatively high Ca content of its foliage.

608. Arend, J.L.; Collins, R.F. 1949. A site classification for eastern redcedar in the Ozarks. Soil Science Society of America. 13: 510-511.

A survey of site conditions for 91 different natural stands of Juniperus virginiana showed depth of soil to be the most important factor on upland sites. Soil acidity within the pH range 4.7-7.8 has little effect on growth and distribution in the Ozarks. Four site classes are recommended for the region.

609. Axmann, B.D.; Knapp, A.K. 1993. Water relations of Juniperus virginiana and Andropogon gerardii in an unburned tallgrass prairie watershed. Southwestern Naturalist. 38(4): 325-330.

We assessed several factors influencing the success of Juniperus virginiana in unburned tallgrass prairie by mapping the distribution of individuals in a 21-ha watershed on the Konza Prairie Research Natural Area in northeastern Kansas. We also compared the water relations of this tree with those of the dominant grass Andropogon gerardii. No general relationships were detected between the distribution of J. virginiana and plant water status, plant size, soil type, slope, aspect, or elevation. Leaf xylem pressure potential (psi) in upland trees was significantly lower (0.44 MPa) than in lowland trees, but only during the driest portion of the growing season. In contrast, topographic position influenced psi more strongly in A. gerardii with psi in upland plants as much as 1.0 MPa lower than in lowland plants. During wetter periods, photosynthetic rates in A. gerardii were higher than in J. virginiana in uplands, but the reverse occurred during the driest period of the growing season. The ability of J. virginiana to maintain higher psi and higher photosynthetic rates relative to A. gerardii during periods of water limitation may contribute to its success in tallgrass prairie protected from fire.

610. Bard, G.E. 1952. Secondary succession on the Piedmont of New Jersey. Ecological Monographs. 22(3): 195-215. 45 refs.

A study of succession on abandoned fields showed that they are invaded by Juniperus virginiana in the first few years and that this is the dominant tree species for more than 60 years. Most of the species of the oak/hickory forest then enter the succession and are in the understory by the 60th year.

611. Bartgis, R.L. 1993. The limestone glades and barrens of West Virginia. Castanea. 58(2): 69-89.

Cedar glade, limestone barren, and glade woodland communities are reported from limestone terraines in the ridge and valley of northeastern West Virginia. The cedar glade communities are dominated by Bouteloua curtipendula, Solidago arguta var. harrisii, Paronychia virginica, and Monarda fistulosa var. brevis; limestone barren communities are dominated by Bouteloua, Hystrix patula, and Schizachyrium scoparius; and glade woodlands are dominated by Juniperus virginiana, Quercus muehlenbergii, and Cercis canadensis. Drought stress appears to play a role in determining the vegetation of these areas. The flora of these three communities consists of 202 known species, including 24 considered to be rare in West Virginia and 8 Appalachian shale barren endemics. Monarda fistulosa var. brevis appears to be endemic to cedar glades, limestone barrens, glade woodlands, and dry limestone cliffs of West Virginia and Virginia. Six other species are almost completely restricted in West Virginia to these communities; Ophioglossum engelmannii and Senecio plattensis are reported from West Virginia for the first time. The unique flora of these communities in West Virginia suggests that they apparently originated independently of cedar glade communities of the Interior Low Plateaus.

612. Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C. 1985. A floristic study of a cedar glade in Blue Licks Battlefield State Park, Kentucky. Castanea. 50(1): 19-25.

613. Beilmann, A.P.; Brenner, L.G. 1951. The changing forest flora of the Ozarks. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 38(3): 283-291. 8 refs.

Reports results of a study of the soils, land use, and development of tree associates during a 10-year period. A rapid invasion of the Quercus marilandica/Q. stellata and Q. alba /Acer saccharum associations by the valuable timber species Q. borealis, Q. alba, and hickory (Carya sp.) is taking place.

614. Beilmann, A.P.; Brenner, L.G. 1951. The recent intrusion of forests in the Ozarks. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 38(3): 261-282. 48 refs.

An attempt is made to reconstruct from historical records the course of recent vegetation changes in the Ozarks. Within historical time much of this region, which is now forest land, was open, park-like country or grassland. Insufficient time has elapsed since the change towards forest cover began, to permit any plant association to reach a climax; 85 percent of the commercial forest land is classified as immature. Juniperus virginiana is a very aggressive invader of the grasslands and old fields. The beginning of its invasion coincides with the reduced burning of grassland that accompanied an increase in the population. There are also indications that the climate of the Ozarks has become milder and wetter.

615. Bidwell, T.G. 1993. Eastern redcedar ecology and management. OSU Ext. Facts. 2868. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Cooperative Extension Service. 4 p.

616. Bragg, T.B.; Hulbert, L.C. 1976. Woody plant invasion of unburned Kansas bluestem prairie. Journal of Range Management. 29(1): 19-24. 27 refs.

A remnant of tall-grass prairie in the Flint Hills, eastern Kansas, was studied by reference to section-line survey records (since 1856) and aerial photos (since 1937). The history of woody plant cover was determined on a total of 12 sites that were (a) unburned for 20-50 years, (b) regularly burned, or (c) regularly sprayed with herbicides (since 1943). Results are presented and discussed in relation to soils and topography. The area covered by woody plants increased by 34 percent in (a) and only 1 percent in (b) over the same period (1937-1969), confirming the importance of fire in maintaining the natural prairie; little net change occurred in (c) where woody cover was already substantial before spraying. In (a), woody plants invaded rapidly on lowland, lower slope and rocky soils, and very slowly on upland soils (which were shallow, heavy-textured, and droughty). Major invading species were Juniperus virginiana, Quercus muehlenbergii, Ulmus americana, and the shrubs Rhus glabra, Cornus drummondii, and Symphoricarpos orbiculatus.

617. Brenner, L.G. 1942. The environmental variables of the Missouri Botanical Garden Wildflower Reservation at Gray Summit. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 29: 103-135.

This paper presents a preliminary survey of the geology, physiography, soils, climatology, and vegetation of a characteristic area in the Wildlife Reservation of the Missouri Botanical Garden. The arborescent flora is a complex one composed of 40 species, representing 28 genera. The large number of species and the relatively wide distribution of many of them in the area may be attributed largely to human occupation rather than to natural causes. The area as a whole has been generally and quite intensively grazed, and approximately half of it has been deforested. Grazing and firing of the forest floor in earlier times led to the invasion of some parts by various heliophilous plants, notably Juniperus virginiana, Ulmus fulva, and Cercis canadensis. Apart from these plants, the vegetation of the area may be arranged in three principal groups: (1) the Quercus/Carya association, (2) the Quercus alba/Acer saccharum association, and (3) the Quercus muehlenbergii/Acer saccharum association. The open glade associates contain practically no arborescent flora, but the closed glade associate is forested with Juniperus virginiana and other tree species, including Quercus muehlenbergii and Bumelia lanuginosa.

618. Broadfoot, W.M. 1951. Redcedar litter improves surface soil. For. Notes SO-71. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 3 p.

Measurements under 15- to 20-year-old Juniperus virginiana on eroded soils in Mississippi showed a new A horizon development of 1 to 7 inches compared with 1.3 inches under adjacent herbaceous cover. The surface soils under J. virginiana had more large pores and transmitted water several times faster. They had 5.3 percent organic matter--nearly twice as much as soils under herbaceous cover--and more than twice as much available Ca; pH was 6.75 compared with 5.71 under herbaceous cover. Amount of litter/acre was 3 tons more under J. virginiana, and each unit of litter contained five times as much Ca and twice as much excess base for neutralizing soil acidity.

619. Broadfoot, W.M. 1951. Soil rehabilitation under eastern redcedar and loblolly pine. Journal of Forestry. 49(11): 780-781. 5 refs.

Tabulates and discusses differences in properties of litter in the top 2 inches of soil under Pinus taeda, Juniperus virginiana, and herbaceous cover. P. taeda produces considerable quantities of litter in a short time, but soil beneath J. virginiana develops more desirable characteristics.

620. Bryant, W.S. 1989. Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) communities in the Kentucky River gorge area of the Bluegrass Region of Kentucky. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-132. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 254-261. 76 refs.

Stand structure and composition were studied in redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) communities on the soil borders of the exposed clifftops of gorges of the Kentucky River and its tributaries in central Kentucky. Redcedar accounted for approximately 76 percent of the density and 79 percent of the basal area; because of its clear dominance, species diversity was low and "evergreenness" high. The small tree/shrub associates formed a distinct and characteristic component of the communities. The harsh clifftop environments serve to reduce competition from more site-demanding species. The absence of fire has also served to select for redcedar. The coefficients of determination and the species replacement patterns indicate that these clifftop communities are rather stable and persistent.

621. Buell, M.F.; Buell, H.F. 1971. Invasion of trees in secondary succession on the New Jersey Piedmont. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 98(2): 67-74. 15 refs.

Quadrates were established on old fields (on soils derived from Triassic red shales), and succession was studied from 1958 to 1969. Tree seedlings (Juniperus virginiana and hardwoods) began to appear during the second year, and continued to appear thereafter. Mortality of previously established individuals was common during the early stages of succession. At first, when much bare soil was exposed, frost-heaving was an important hindrance to the early establishment of tree seedlings.

622. Coile, T.S. 1950. Effect of soil on the development of hardwood understories in pine stands of the Piedmont Plateau. Soil Science Society of America. 14: 250-252. 3 refs.

In connection with an earlier study, hardwood understory species over 4 1/2 feet high were enumerated by diameter classes, and the effect of age and density of the pine overstory and of various soil factors on the density, or space occupied by the main understory species, was determined by regression analysis. The soil variables tested were: depth of the A horizon in inches, inhibitional-water value of the B horizon, site quality of the land, and the texture of the surface soil (i.e., coarse, medium, and fine). The relationships between the variables and the space occupied (milliacres per 200 milliacres) are presented in formula and graphs for Cornus florida, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Juniperus virginiana. These correlations, which relate to 70 percent of the total understory of the average pine stand, are considered useful in estimating the competitive hardwood potential of any land in the Piedmont region.

623. Collins, S. 1962. Three decades of change in an unmanaged Connecticut woodland. Bull. 653. Storrs, CT: Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. 32 p. 21 refs.

Describes changes in the composition and structure of the Cox Plot, an unmanaged oak woodland developed on land abandoned or cut over 75 years ago (see Bull. Conn. Ag. Exp. Sta. No. 330, 1931, for summary and description). Pioneer species such as redcedar, aspen, and black cherry have disappeared in favor of Quercus spp., which increasingly dominate the stand.

624. Colvin, W.S.; Eisenmenger, W.S. 1943. Relationships of natural vegetation to the water-holding capacity of the soils of New England. Soil Science Society of America. 55: 433-446.

From a study made in New England on the relation between the natural vegetation and the water-holding capacity of the soil, it appears that certain trees, shrubs, and herbs grow in greatest abundance on soils of particular water-holding ranges, while the distribution of other species seems to be unaffected by this soil factor. Pitch pine, black oak, and scrub oak are among the species that are generally most abundant on soils with a comparatively low water-holding capacity. Black birch, flowering dogwood, hickory, white oak, and scarlet oak occur mainly on soils with a medium water-holding capacity. Ash, beech, ironwood, sugar maple, red oak, and spruce prefer soils with a comparatively high water-holding capacity. A considerable number of species, including gray birch, hemlock, red maple, redcedar, and white pine are found growing on soils varying widely in their moisture-retaining properties.

625. Conner, J.J.; Shacklette, H.T.; Erdman, J.A. 1971. Extraordinary trace-element accumulation in roadside cedars near Centerville, Missouri. Profess. Pap. 750-B. Washington, DC: U.S. Geological Survey: 151-156.

Unusually high concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd found in roadside Juniperus virginiana trees were probably attributable to transport of lead-bearing ores along the roads rather than to mineralization of underlying rock.

626. Cook, D.I.; VanHaverbeke, D.F. 1977. Suburban noise control with plant materials and solid barriers. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-25. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 234-241.

Includies use of: Pinus nigra, P. ponderosa, P. sylvestris, Thuja orientalis, Juniperus scopulorum, J. virginiana, and Picea sp.

627. Cotta, A. 1950. Natural regeneration of exotic species in Piemonte, Italy. Schweizeriche Zeitschrift fuer Forstwesen. 101(2/3): 104-111. Italian.

A number of exotic species were planted, about 150 years ago, in the park surrounding a castle in Monferrato. These included larch, Scots pine, spruce, Abies pinsapo, Corsican pine, three species of cedar, two of Chamaecyparis, Thuja, Tsuga, Juniperus virginiana, Ginkgo, Acer negundo, horse chestnut, Ailanthus, Melia azedarach, and Robinia. With the exception of the larch (which stagnated) and the Scots pine (chlorotic), all these species have grown well, but only the horse chestnut and Robinia appear to be reproducing themselves in any appreciable degree.

628. Cross, E.A. 1981. Reclamation of surface-mine spoil. Auburn, AL: Alabama University, School of Mines and Energy Development. 53 p.

Research being performed on land reclamation at the Corona and Kellerman mines in Alabama is reported. Information is presented under the following headings: effects of topsoiling and mulching treatment on plant growth and soil erosion; preliminary findings on the germination and growth of southern red oak seedlings on calcareous shale surface mine spoil; some effects of vegetation type and fertilization on growth, survival, and tip moth damage in loblolly pine planted on alkaline shale surface mine spoil; some effects of competition and fertilizer on the growth and survival of selected Christmas tree stock and Virginia pine on alkaline shale spoil; growth and survival of eastern redcedar on alkaline shale spoil; and greenhouse studies. The appendixes are entitled: study of the effects of acidification of calcareous shale on the growth of weeping love grass; the effects of competition and spoil mixtures on the growth of perennial ryegrass and weeping lovegrass; and the effects of delayed fertilization on the growth of weeping lovegrass.

629. Dooley, K.L.; Collins, S.L. 1984. Ordination and classification of western oak forests in Oklahoma. American Journal of Botany. 71(9): 1221-1227. 32 refs.

Data on the composition of the tree size class (less than 10 cm d.b.h.) and numbers of seedlings (less than 2.5 cm) were collected in 46 stands in Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge. Saplings were extremely rare and data were not analyzed. The data were analyzed to determine patterns of forest vegetation, species diversity, and soil type. The most important species in both the tree and seedling strata were Quercus stellata, Q. marilandica, and Juniperus virginiana. Cluster analysis revealed three community types: low diversity forests dominated by Q. marilandica/Q. stellata or by Q. stellata and mesophytic forests. A polar ordination produced a gradient of vegetation corresponding to a moisture gradient. Many high diversity, mesophytic forests were on loamy drainageway soils or north facing slopes. Tree species diversity was inversely related to the importance of Q. stellata. Stand ordinations differed for trees and seedlings, suggesting that these strata respond differently along the moisture gradient.

630. Duncan, S.A.; Ellis, W.H. 1969. An analysis of the forest communities of Montgomery County, Tennessee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Sciences. 44(1): 25-32. 24 refs.

Distinguishes and describes six distinct forest communities: white oak/northern red oak/ hickory; post oak/black oak; beech/maple; redcedar/hardwood; bottomlands; and stream banks.

631. Einspahr, W. 1955. Coal spoil-bank materials as a medium for plant growth. Iowa Academy of Science. 62: 133-144. 8 refs.

Reports results of a chemical and physical analysis of spoil from Iowa coal strip-mining. Field trials (no details) suggested that Pinus virginiana, P. rigida, Juniperus virginiana, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Populus deltoides, Ulmus americana, Platanus occidentalis, and Robinia pseudoacacia are promising for some of the acid or toxic shales unsuitable for other crops.

632. Engle, D.M.; Stritzke, J.F. 1992. Herbage production around eastern redcedar trees. In: Bidwell, T.; Titus, D.; Cassels, D., eds. Range Research Highlights, 1983-1991. Circ. E. 905. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service: 13.

633. Engle, D.M.; Stritzke, J.F.; Claypool, P.L. 1987. Herbage standing crop around eastern redcedar trees. Journal of Range Management. 40(3): 237-239. 17 refs.

Herbage standing crop was measured in 1984 and 1985 at distances radiating away from individual trees of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) in north-central Oklahoma tallgrass prairies. Trees of two height classes (2 and 6 m) were studied. Soil water content at 0 and 3 m from the dripline and tree leaf water content were studied during 1982-1984. There was very little herbage beneath the tree canopy; herbage production was slightly reduced at the dripline, but there was little reduction beyond the dripline. Tree height did not affect the herbage crop. Soil water content at the tree dripline was sometimes less than that 3 m outside the dripline, but the differences were small. Leaf water content generally followed the seasonal trend of soil water content. It was concluded that herbage reduction would be very little in the early stages of tree encroachment when the canopy is small. Since tree leaf water content is relatively low in late spring, this is an appropriate season for prescribed burns to control J. virginiana.

634. Erickson, R.O.; Brenner, L.G.; Wraight, J. 1942. Dolomitic glades of east-central Missouri. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 29: 89-101.

An account of the physical characteristics and vegetation of the outcrops of thin-bedded dolomite or dolomitic limestone that occur in the Ozark region of Missouri. The most characteristic flora is herbaceous, but small trees are often found surrounding gullies or ledges of rock. The most common tree species are Juniperus virginiana, Quercus muehlenbergii, Q. stellata, Celtis pumila, C. pumila var. georgiana, Acer saccharum var. schneckii, Rhamnus caroliniana, Vitis lincecumii var. glauca, Cornus florida, and Bumelia lanuginosa.

635. Ferguson, E.R.; Lawson, E.R.; Maple, W.R.; Mesavage, C. 1968. Managing eastern redcedar. Res. Pap. SO-37. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 14 p. 48 refs.

Reviews the literature, and recent studies in Arkansas, on the characteristics, distribution, site requirements, natural regeneration, planting and sowing, protection, control of competition, growth and yield, and marketing of Juniperus virginiana.

636. Fletcher, P.W.; Ochrymowych, J. 1955. Mineral nutrition and growth of eastern redcedar in Missouri. Res. Bull. 577. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Agriculture Experiment Station. 16 p.

Mineral composition of twigs and foliage was compared with mineral composition of soil on which the plants grew. (1) Rich, calcareous soils produced maximum growth but least ash per unit of oven dry matter; (2) The percentages of total seedling weight in root, stem, and foliage remain almost constant regardless of plant size or soil; (3) Soluble phosphorus and exchangeable calcium in silt loam soils were directly related to seedling growth; (4) Phosphorus concentration in the foliage of seedlings and mature trees was related directly to phosphorus concentration in the silt loam soils studied; (5) The foliage contained greater concentrations of potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus than did the twigs, about the same silica and total ash, and less calcium; (6) As the growing season advanced, concentration of phosphorus in the foliage increased.

637. Freeman, C.P. 1933. Ecology of the cedar glade vegetation near Nashville, Tennessee. Tennessee Academy of Science. 8: 143-228.

Investigated a subclimax eastern redcedar forest on a shallow soil overlying horizontal limestone. Presents information on soil temperature, weekly course of soil water, hydrogen-ion concentrations, and surface evaporation.

638. Gams, H. 1943. The forests of southern Russia and their history. Forstarchiv. 19: 69-85. German

The development of vegetational types in southern Russia has been conditioned to a large extent by five factors: (1) the repeated overflowing of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, which, even during the last ice age, covered a large part of the neighboring lowlands to the north; (2) glaciation and other disturbances during the ice age; (3) the continental climate with its low precipitation and great variations in temperature throughout the greater part of the area, and the high-mountain climate of the Caucasus; (4) the salt deposits left by the retreating sea, and (5) damage by grazing, often accompanied by forest clearance and burning of the steppe. After dividing the area into six main zones, the author discusses the composition of the natural forests and reviews the vegetational development of the area from pre-historic times. Much damage has been caused to the forests by grazing, overexploitation and forest and steppe fires. Afforestation of deforested areas and of the timberless steppe has been in progress for many years. In addition to indigenous hardwoods (oak, maple, elm, ash, and birch) fruit trees, pines, and many exotics have been planted. The latter include Pinus nigra, Juniperus virginiana, Robinia, Gleditsia, Acer negundo, Morus alba, Elaeagnus angustifolia, and many shrubs such as Caragana arborescens, Amorpha fruticosa, and Lycium barbarum.

639. Gehring, J.L.; Bragg, T.B. 1992. Changes in prairie vegetation under eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) in an eastern Nebraska bluestem prairie. American Midland Naturalist. 128(2): 209-217. 32 refs.

On a native prairie located on bluffs adjacent to the Platte River Valley in eastern Nebraska, plant species composition under and adjacent to isolated 10- to 22-year-old J. virginiana trees was examined. Andropogon scoparius (Schizachyrium scoparium) dominated plots without trees (44 percent cover), and Poa pratensis, a non-native species dominated under trees (19 percent); this difference represents a 20-year change in herbaceous composition following establishment and growth of tree crowns over native prairie. In addition to A. scoparius (-34 percent), 11 other species declined under persistent tree cover including A. gerardii and Aster ericoides (-10 and -5 percent, respectively); P. pratensis and Carex spp. cover increased 13 and 10 percent, respectively. Direction from the main tree stem affected the response of Bouteloua hirsuta, Linum rigidum var. compactum, B. curtipendula, and Ambrosia psilostachya to tree crown development; the percentage cover of these species was generally lower to the north and east than to the west and south.

640. Graf, D.I. 1970. Distribution pattern of eastern redcedar, Juniperus virginiana L., in Iowa. Dissertation Abstracts International, B. Science and Engineering. 31(2): 544.

The present distribution is compared with that in presettlement times, and reasons for present distribution are discussed.

641. Graf, D.I.; Landers, R.Q.; Poulter, R.W. 1965. Distribution patterns of eastern redcedar, Juniperus virginiana L., in Henry County, Iowa. Iowa Academy of Science. 72: 98-105. 2 refs.

Older planted trees are the seed source for natural regeneration, which takes place easily in the predominantly rolling grasslands, and which can constitute a serious pasture management problem.

642. Guyette, R.P.; Cutter, B.E. 1991. Tree-ring analysis of fire history of a post oak savanna in the Missouri (USA) Ozarks. Natural Areas Journal. 11(2): 93-99.

Fire scars from 43 trees were dated by dendrochronological methods to reconstruct the extent and frequency of fire in an area of post oak savannas in southern Missouri. Post oak (Quercus stellata Wang.), shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.), and eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) trees from the Caney Mountain Wildlife Refuge were used to construct two fire-scar chronologies. Fire frequency and extent were found to be greater between 1700 and 1810 on post oak savannas. The mean fire-free interval during the pre-1810 period was 4.3 years for an area of post oak savanna of approximately 2.5 km-2. Evidence for several fires at least 6 km-2 in extent was found from trees scarred in the years 1785, 1796, and 1806. A decrease in fire frequency on post oak savannas begin in 1820, the time when native Americans began moving westward out of this area. In oak-pine woods, fire frequency was found to increase after 1850 with the settlement of the area in the 1860s by European-Americans.

643. Guyette, R.P.; McGinnes, E.A., Jr. 1987. Potential in using elemental concentrations in radial increments of old growth eastern redcedar to examine the chemical history of the environment. In: Jacoby, G.; Hornbeck, J., comps. International symposium of ecological aspects of tree ring analysis. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research: 671-680.

644. Guyette, R.P.; Cutter, B.E.; Henderson, G.S. 1989. Long-term relationships between molybdenum and sulphur concentrations in redcedar tree rings. Journal of Environmental Quality. 18(3): 385-389. 22 refs.

Molybdenum and sulfur concentrations were determined in growth rings of 13 eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) trees from the Ozark region of Missouri. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine Mo concentrations; S concentrations were determined turbidimetrically as barium sulfate. Chronologies were constructed which dated from AD 1280 to 1960 for Mo and from 1580 to 1960 for S. A 45 percent increase in Mo concentrations occurred between 1720 and 1860 when compared with the previous 440 years. A decline in heartwood Mo concentrations, beginning in 1860, was thought to be due to increases in soil SO4 from atmospheric deposition of S compounds. There was a 65 percent reduction in Mo concentrations concomitant with a 44 percent increase in S concentration in redcedar heartwood formed after 1860. S and Mo concentrations were negatively correlated in serial heartwood increments. Competition between sulfate and molybdate ions in soil solutions is thought to have led to decreased molybdenum concentrations in recent heartwood growth increments.

645. Guyette, R.P.; Cutter, B.E.; Henderson, G.S. 1991. Long-term correlations between mining activity and levels of lead and cadmium in tree-rings of eastern redcedar. Journal of Environmental Quality. 20(1): 146-150. 20 refs.

Growth increments of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) from sites in the lead mining district of southeast Missouri were subjected to multi-element analysis to determine whether lead and cadmium concentrations in growth increments could be used as indicators of historical changes in these elements in the environment. Three chronologies, two of lead and one of cadmium, were constructed from heartwood growth increments of 27 trees on mining-district and control sites. No significant increases in lead and cadmium were found in growth increments of trees on control sites. Lead in the heartwood of trees on acid soils of the mining district increased from 3.1 Êmol/kg in growth increments formed before 1900 to 7.8 Êmol/kg in increments formed after 1900. Cadmium was detected in 3 and 46 percent of the wood formed before and after 1900, respectively. Lead and cadmium were found only in wood grown on acid soils (pH less than 4.6). Redcedars on soils overlying dolomite with a mean horizon pH greater than 5 had no detectable lead or cadmium. Lead and cadmium concentrations in growth increments were highly correlated with lead production in the district. Soil pH was inversely correlated with lead in sapwood in both mining and control sites.

646. Guyette, R.P.; McGinnes, E.A., Jr.; Probasco, G.E.; Evans, K.E. 1980. A climate history of Boone County, Missouri, from tree-ring analysis of eastern redcedar. Wood Fiber. 12(1): 17-28. 17 refs.

A ring-width index was constructed from an analysis of 12 eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) trees. Correlations with summer temperature, spring rainfall, and Palmer drought index (June) were demonstrated. The index was comparable with other chronologies for the midwest U.S.A. A 2-year cycle was apparent--a wide ring was followed by a narrow ring. A 2-year cycle of drought occurred during certain periods. Some possible interpretations of past climate history, based on the ring-width index, are listed for selected time periods back to 1650.

647. Hall, M.T. 1955. Comparison of juniper populations on an Ozark glade and old fields. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 42(2): 171-194. 19 refs.

In the northeastern Ozarks, Juniperus virginiana is represented by the Ozark race (introgressants from J. ashei) on bluffs, glades, and most old fields. Occasionally the northern race is found locally with a little admixture of the Ozark race. Three populations of J. virginiana in the northeastern Ozarks were studied in detail in order to compare their variation patterns and habitats. The evidence suggests that the three populations, Glade, Cedar Hill, and Old Field, are distinct and differ more or less proportionately to the difference in their habitats. The Glade (Ozark race) is the most southwestern in affinity, more closely resembling a population and habitat of J. ashei. Cedar Hill (Ozark race) is intermediate between Glade and typical eastern and occurs on old fields that are in good condition, or, farther southwest from Gray Summit, Missouri, on more worn-out lands. The Old Field (northern race with a little mixing from the Ozark race) occurs on worn-out acidic and sandy lands in the vicinity of St. Louis and north-eastward. Distribution in the age classes in the junipers indicates that the bluffs, knobs, and glades have been colonized longest, followed by the old fields, supporting the Ozark race, and, last, the worn-out sandy, acidic fields supporting youthful colonies of the northern race. An explosive expansion of juniper colonization resulting from man's activities seems to have occurred within the last 100 years, growing progressively as land has been worn out and abandoned.

648. Hall, M.T.; Carr, C.J. 1964. Differential selection in juniper populations from the Baum limestone and Trinity sand of southern Oklahoma. Butler University Botany Studies. 14(2): 21-40. 48 refs.

The data suggest that, in southern Oklahoma, Juniperus ashei develops plentifully in areas where soil moisture is low enough to limit J. virginiana. Since the habitats of the two species overlap, hybridization occurs, but only those hybrids survive that are adapted to intermediate habitats. These are rich sources for confirmed hybridization and introgression.

649. Hall, W.L. 1900. Notes in Oklahoma. I. The extermination of the red cedar. Forester. 6: 163-164.

650. Harper, R.M. 1926. The cedar glades of middle Tennessee. Ecology. 7: 48-54.

651. Hoering, T. 1955. Variations of nitrogen-15 abundance in naturally occurring substances. Science. 122(3182): 1233-1234. 5 refs.

The substances studied include leaves of red oak, cedar (Juniperus virginiana), and American elm.

652. Holthuijzen, A.M.A.; Sharik, T.L. 1985. Colonization of abandoned pastures by eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.). Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 15(6): 1065-1068. 19 refs.

Rates and patterns of colonization of the predominantly avian dispersed J. virginiana were investigated in three abandoned pastures in southwest Virginia. The three populations, with median ages of 2, 5, and 14 years, showed sigmoid patterns of increase. Exponential increase occurred during the first 6-9 years and peaked in 8-10 years. Only the youngest population showed a significant spatial gradient in distribution, numbers decreasing exponentially with distance from the nearest cone-bearing trees along the edge of the pasture. A decreasing activity gradient of avian dispersers with distance from the seed source may have resulted in the spatial trend in tree density. No relationship existed between age and location of individuals within stands. The apparent spatial uniformity with increasing age is probably due to several factors, including the increasing availability of avian perching sites and seed sources.

653. Holthuijzen, A.M.A.; Sharik, T.L. 1985. The avian seed dispersal system of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana). Canadian Journal of Botany. 63(9): 1508-1515. 34 refs.

654. Holthuijzen, A.M.A.; Sharik, T.L. 1985. The redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) seed shadow along a fenceline. American Midland Naturalist. 113(1): 200-202.

655. Holthuijzen, A.M.A.; Sharik, T.L.; Fraser, J.D. 1987. Dispersal of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) into pastures: an overview. Canadian Journal of Botany. 65(6): 1092-1095.

J. virginiana is predominantly an avian-dispersed species. Seed dispersal, predispersal and postdispersal seed predation, seed dormancy, and germination were followed during the 1981-1982 fruiting season on four trees in grazed pastures in southwest Virginia. Of the total cone crop, 35 percent was recovered within 12 m of the source tree. The remaining 61 percent of the crop was dispersed at least 12 m. From other studies, it is concluded that less than 4 percent of the total cone crop may germinate within 12 m of the source tree, while 27 percent of those dispersed greater distances may germinate. Total germination was greater in seeds that had passed through avian digestive tracts than in seeds that had been manually depulped. Dormant seeds rapidly lost their viability. Seed shadows generated by avian dispersers decreased exponentially with increasing distance from the source tree. The large cone crop, diverse avian dispersers, adaptation to open, xeric sites, and availability of seed sources in fence rows contribute to the successful invasion of pastures by this species.

656. Hutcheson, H.L.; Rothe, S.C. 1977. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) reproduction and spread in Brookings County, South Dakota. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Sciences. 56: 125-134.

657. Jackson, T.A. 1971. Biochemical weathering of calcium-bearing minerals by rhizosphere micro-organisms, and its influence on calcium accumulation in trees. Plant and Soil. 35(3): 655-658. 12 refs.

Comparisons were made of the microflora of (a) the rhizosphere of Juniperus virginiana, (b) that of Pinus strobus, and (c) soil under grass. The species composition of (a) was more varied than that of (b), the trees being of the same age, in identical growing conditions; and although there were fluctuations from winter to spring, (a) had always more CaSiO3-solubilizers than (b). The known high Ca content of J. virginiana and the relations (possibly symbiotic) between trees and rhizosphere micro-organisms are discussed.

658. Jeffries, D.L. 1985. Analysis of the vegetation and soils of glades on calico rock sandstone in northern Arkansas. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 112(1): 70-73. 25 refs.

Describes a survey of 25 sites dominated by Juniperus virginiana made in July to early September 1982.

659. Klein, S. 1948. Cedar species: their geographic distribution and use. American Perfume Essential Oil Review, New York. 51(2-3): 137-140, 242-245. 39 refs.

Gives a brief account of the most common cedars of the U.S.A. (Chamaecyparis, Libocedrus, and Juniperus) and describes the production of oils from J. virginiana and J. mexicana, their chemical constituents, comparative properties, and uses. That from J. virginiana is a byproduct, obtained from waste wood from cabinet-making; that from J. mexicana is the principal product. The latter species is a comparatively new source, producing an oil that differs in odor from that of virginiana mainly in its greater strength.

660. Lawson, E.R.; Law, J.R. 1983. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), ecology, management, eastern United States, Ontario, Quebec. Agric. Handb. 445 (Revised) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 109-112.

661. Leopold, A.C. 1947. The distribution of redcedar in eastern Massachusetts. Rhodora. 49(583): 172-175.

The plant succession of old fields to oak/ hickory stands of the Central Hardwoods type originally covering most of Connecticut, Rhode Island, and the eastern margin of Massachusetts is said to have had an initial stage of redcedar and gray birch. Old fields in central Massachusetts commonly come up to white pine, which later gives way to the Transition Hardwoods characterized by red oak, white ash, sugar maple, red maple, and black birch. The approximate boundary in eastern Massachusetts between old fields that come up to redcedar (Juniperus virginiana var. crebra) and those that come up to white pine has been mapped, and a small section has been analyzed in considerable detail. A map shows that the frequency distribution of redcedar, as shown by isopleths, has remarkable similarities in pattern to isotherms of no fewer than four cold weather phenomena.

662. Little, E.L., Jr. 1971. Atlas of United States trees: Vol. 1. Conifers and important hardwoods. Misc. Publ. 1146. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Map 31-w, 31-e.

663. Livingston, R.B. 1972. Influence of birds, stones and soil on the establishment of pasture juniper, Juniperus communis, and redcedar, J. virginiana, in New England pastures. Ecology. 53(6): 1141-1147. 10 refs.

Describes a study showing that on grazed pastures exposed stones offer advantages to nearly all plants adjacent to the stones, and are virtually essential for the establishment of J. communis var. depressa. The stones protect seedlings from grazing or trampling damage, and provide a micro-environment that may save the seedlings from desiccation while still satisfying the stratification requirements for juniper seed. Robins rest on exposed stones, and their droppings become concentrated on them. Birds are the effective disseminators of juniper seed, and though their digestive action has a marked inhibitory effect on germination, the depositing of seeds on stones introduces them to a micro-habitat that more than compensates for the reduced germination. Seed is washed from the droppings and carried downward into cracks caused by frost heaving around each stone. Here the seed remains moist during the long period necessary for double stratification. Seedlings growing in the cracks are under the influence of a stone micro-catchment that can provide extra water to aid survival during drought periods. J. virginiana var. crebra also benefits in the same way, but since its germination requirements are less exacting, its seed can germinate even on the surface. Thus, when grazing pressures are light or non-existent, J. virginiana var. crebra may become established without the benefit of stones.

664. Lorio, P.L., Jr.; Gatherum, G.E. 1965. Relationship of tree survival and yield to coal-spoil characteristics. Res. Bull. 535. Ames, IA: University of Iowa Agriculture Experiment Station: 394-403. 18 refs.

Plots of Pinus resinosa, P. banksiana, P. rigida, P. virginiana, Juniperus virginiana, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Populus deltoides were established in 1952 on six coal-spoil areas in Iowa. This study attempts to correlate survival and yield after 7-8 years with: (a) pH, (b) exchangeable Al, (c) exchangeable and soluble bases, (d) nitrifiable N, (e) cation exchange capacity, (f) soluble-salt concentration, (g) available P, (h) available K, and (i) position on slope. Some relationship was found between survival of all species and (a), (b), (d), (e), and (f), but correlations varied with species. Significant correlations were found between yield [undefined] and (b) and (f) for P. deltoides, between yield and (d), (f) and (i) for J. virginiana, and between yield and (c) and (e) for P. rigida. Interactions between variables obscured relationships in many cases.

665. Lowry, G.L. 1958. Conifer growth and survival varies on acid soils. Ohio Farm Home Research. 43(311): 20-21.

Shows, in diagrammatic form, total height and survival percent at 2 years on five different types of soil (pH varying from 2.1 to 7.3), for Pinus strobus, P. rigida, P. banksiana, P. echinata, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa, Juniperus virginiana, and Chamaecyparis thyoides in Ohio. P. rigida was the most consistently promising.

666. Lutz, H.J. 1928. Trends and silvicultural significance of upland forest succession in southern New England. For. Bull. 22. New Haven, CT: Yale University, School of Forestry. 68 p.

Redcedar-gray birch association is classed as xerophytic and is commonly designated old field type, since it usually originates on abandoned farmland. Silviculturally, the greatest value of this association lies in its beneficial influence on soil conditions.

667. McClurkin, D.C. 1970. Site rehabilitation under planted redcedar and pine. (Juniperus virginiana, Pinus). In: Papers of the 3d North American forest soils 1968 conference on forest soils related to North America: 339-345.

668. McClurkin, D.C. 1971. Problems of chemical and physical properties of forest soils and litter. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 305-411. 5 refs.

Describes site rehabilitation under planted redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) and pine. Five-year results indicated that loblolly and shortleaf pines (particularly loblolly) produced more litter and were better for rehabilitating abandoned land in Mississippi with loess-type soils.

669. McCormack, M.L.; Korstian, C.F. 1963. Conversion of post oak-blackjack oak type to pine in North Carolina Piedmont. Journal of Forestry. 61(6): 445-446. 3 refs.

Conversion by (a) improvement felling, reserving the most promising pines (Pinus taeda and P. echinata) and Juniperus virginiana, and conversion by (b) planting with P. taeda after clear felling both proved to be satisfactory. After both treatments, a sufficient number of pines and J. virginiana were free to form the major components of the stands. In untreated areas, pines remained minor components, and most of the growth occurred on poor-quality oaks.

670. McDonnell, M.J. 1986. Old field vegetation height and the dispersal pattern of bird-disseminated woody plants. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 113: 1, 6-11. 37 refs.

In a study in central New Jersey in 1981, species collected in seed traps included Toxicodendron radicans, Rosa multiflora, Phytolacca americana, Juniperus virginiana (the four most abundant species), Nyssa sylvatica, Cornus florida, other Cornus spp., Viburnum dentatum, Rhus spp., and Prunus spp.

671. Mann, D.T.; Hays, R.S. 1948. Effect of grass on invasion of cedar. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 3: 49.

A Texas range in fair condition had 456 cedar trees per acre, while there were only 196 cedars per acre on range in good condition.

672. Maple, W.R. 1957. Redcedar growth in Arkansas' Ozarks. For. Notes 112. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station.

Improvement cutting and hardwood control stimulated a stand of 161 cubic feet per acre to grow at a rate of 10 percent annually. Annual growth was computed to be worth $3.69 per acre.

673. Maple, W.R. 1965. Forest species compared in Ozark Plantations. Res. Note SO-28. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 2 p.

Eastern redcedars planted on a loamy sand in north Arkansas were 19 feet tall and 3.6 inches in diameter at age 15. The seedlings were low in vigor when planted, and survivals ranged from 17 to 44 percent.

674. Martin, S.C.; Crosby, J.S. 1955. Burning and grazing on glade range in Missouri. Tech. Pap. 147. Columbus, OH: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Central States Forest Experiment Station. 13 p.

Carrying capacities of many glade range areas in Missouri are being reduced by the spread of eastern redcedar. Burning is not recommended for control due to the damage to desirable forage and cover plants. Cutting or chemical control is effective.

675. Miller, L.C. 1902. The red cedar in Nebraska. Forest and Irrigation. 8: 282-285.

Considering red cedar's wide distribution, annual height, diameter growth, and excellent reproduction, red cedar is destined to be widely used for future planting throughout Nebraska.

676. Minckler, L.S. 1953. Poor oak sites may grow good pine. Tech. Pap. CS-134. Columbus, OH: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Central States Forest Experiment Station. 6 p.

Mixed stands of Quercus spp. and Carya sp. on poor sites were treated either by cutting openings 30, 60, and 120 feet in diameter or by clear felling, and then planting with Pinus echinata or Juniperus virginiana. The latter did poorly on all sites. Pine survival was good in all plantings, and height growth increased with size of opening, being easily best on the 17-acre clear-felled area.

677. Minckler, L.S. 1966. Establishing mixtures of redcedar in poor oak-hickory forests. Res. Note NC-20. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 2 p.

Experimental planting of Juniperus virginiana to enrich poor oak/hickory stands was successful. Openings should be cut with a diameter one or two times the height of surrounding trees. Hardwood brush in the openings should first be killed and regrowth kept down.

678. Mohr, C.T. 1901. Notes on the redcedar. Pap. 31. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forestry Division. 37 p.

Presents selections on distribution, associated species, products, growth, development, enemies, natural reproduction, forest management, nomenclature and classification, botanical description, and morphology.

679. Monk, R.W. 1960. Growth and survival of some ornamental plants on salinized soils and substrates and the resistance of their protoplasm as related to salt tolerance. Dissertation Abstracts International, B. Science and Engineering. 21(6): 1319.

Eight species of annuals and 21 species of trees and shrubs (including ponderosa pine, blue spruce, Douglas fir, eastern redcedar, black locust, honey locust, golden willow, black walnut, and little-leaf linden) were studied in solution cultures and field plots, respectively. Black locust and honey locust were among the six perennials surviving the highest salt level (10,000 p.p.m.), golden willow was one of the two surviving the second level (8,000 p.p.m.), while eastern redcedar, Douglas fir, green ash, and honeysuckle survived the third level (6,000 p.p.m.). Tests by the plasmolytic or 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium-chloride method showed good correlation between plant species surviving and the resistance of plant tissue to salt. Ca, Mg, Na, K, and P were determined on samples from the terminal 6 inches of leaves and stems of all trees and shrubs. All those grown in treated cultures contained a greater quantity of Na, and all except Tamarix contained a greater quantity of Ca, than controls. In all tree and shrub species except Tamarix, an inverse relationship was found between salt concentration and rate of diameter growth.

680. Myster, R.W.; Pickett, S.T.A. 1993. Effects of litter, distance, density and vegetation patch type on postdispersal tree seed predation in old fields. Oikos. 66(3): 381-388. 57 refs.

A study was made in autumn 1989 of the spatial and temporal variation and difference in seed predation among six tree species (Acer rubrum, Fraxinus americana, Cornus florida, Quercus rubra, Carya tomentosa, and Juniperus virginiana) in two old fields (one of the fields had not been used for farming for 7 years and the other had not been used for 17 years) at a site in New Jersey. Five seeds of each species were placed on anchored squares (13 X 13 cm) of waterproof sandpaper, either in the open or in cages (0.25 X 0.25 X 1.0 m), to exclude mammalian predators. Litter of Quercus spp. or Solidago spp. was placed on some of the sandpaper squares, at its naturally occurring density. For A. rubrum and F. americana, two other seed densities (25 and 125 seeds/square of sandpaper) were used in addition. The seed predator guild consisted of gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and raccoon (Procyon lotor). Very few J. virginiana seeds were lost to predation. Predation for all other species was reduced by additions of Quercus spp. litter or Solidago spp. litter. Carya tomentosa seed predation also decreased with increasing distance from the forest edge. The initial seed density affected seed predation rates of A. rubrum but not of F. americana. Predation was greater in patches of woody vegetation than in herbaceous patches, and was less in the more recently abandoned field. The order of seed preference was A. rubrum > Cornus florida > Carya tomentosa > Q. rubra > F. americana > J. virginiana in the more recently abandoned field, and Q. rubra > A. rubrum > F. americana > Carya tomentosa in the other field.

681. Nunes, F.P. 1958. Data for a study on the behaviour of exotic species in Mozambique. Pointe Noire, Congo: 2d Session Inter-African Forestry Conference. 10 p.

Gives notes on the behavior of a number of Eucalyptus spp., Cupressus lusitanica, C. goveniana, C. macrocarpa and C. sempervirens, Juniperus bermudiana, J. sinensis, and J. virginiana, Syncarpia laurifolia, and Callitris calcarata.

682. Oosting, H.J. 1942. An ecological analysis of the plant communities of Piedmont, North Carolina. American Midland Naturalist. 28: 1-126.

Since redcedar grows in every habitat and is associated with all plant communities, it can have no bearing on the trend of events (succession). Infrequently, it may be the first tree pioneer in old fields. It is never a dominant, never a dependent, and rarely in significant numbers.

683. Owensby, C.E.; Blan, K.R.; Eaton, B.J.; Russ, O.G. 1973. Evaluation of eastern redcedar infestations in the northern Kansas Flint Hills. Journal of Range Management. 26(4): 256-260. 9 refs.

The associations between cattle stocking rate, rainfall, and invasion of Juniperus virginiana were investigated during 1959-1969 together with possible methods of control. J. virginiana appeared to invade all upland sites equally irrespective of slope, exposure, or rainfall, but the numbers generally decreased as the stocking rate increased. Small trees were eliminated by fire or cutting, and fenuron granules at 2 tablespoons/inch basal diameter effectively controlled larger trees. Foliar sprays were less effective than granules.

684. Palmer, E.J. 1921. The forest flora of the Ozark region. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. 2: 216-232.

Presents physiography of the Ozark Uplift and the associated vegetation. Redcedar occurs throughout the region but is abundant only along the bluffs.

685. Quarterman, E. 1950. Ecology of cedar glades. I. Distribution of glade flora in Tennessee. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 77: 1-9.

686. Quarterman, E. 1950. Major plant communities of Tennessee cedar glades. Ecology. 31: 234-254.

687. Rains, M.T. 1977. Brush dams reduce sediment production and create favorable planting sites. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 1(4): 4-7. 2 refs.

Brush dams for gully plugging can be loosely constructed (18-24 inches high) from locally collected cedar (Juniperus virginiana) poles and tops. Experience with cedar brush dams is described in establishing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) for erosion control in northern Mississippi. Estimated data are presented for: reduction in annual soil loss on loess, loam, sand, and clay soil types compared with sites without dams, for different numbers of dams per acre; and height growth behind dams compared with growth on nearby slopes. It is concluded that brush dams are effective for temporarily reducing sediment production from eroding lands and for aiding the establishment of pine seedlings planted for permanent erosion control.

688. Read, R.A. 1952. Tree species occurrence as influenced by geology and soil on an Ozark north slope. Ecology. 33: 239-246.

Describes relationships between species occurrence and types of soil, derived from surface geologic formations in the northern Arkansas Ozarks. Eastern redcedar, oaks, elm, and shagbark hickory predominated on St. Joe limestone.

689. Read, R.A.; Walker, L.C. 1950. Influence of eastern redcedar on soil in Connecticut pine plantations. Journal of Forestry. 48(8): 337-339. 9 refs.

Physical and chemical properties of surface soil beneath Juniperus virginiana in pine plantations in Connecticut were found to be different from those beneath adjacent pines. Properties of the surface soil below redcedars were apparently influenced by the high Ca content of the litter (2 percent compared with less than 1 percent for white and red pines), its decomposition products, and subsequent incorporation in the soil by earthworms. In the older pine plantation studied, earthworm activity was confined to the area directly beneath the few redcedars in the stand.

690. Reva, M.L.; Reva, N.N. 1972. Juniperus virginiana in the steppe zone of the Ukraine. Byulleten Glavnogo Botanicheskogo Sada. 84: 13-19. 15 refs. Russian.

Describes the performance of J. virginiana as individual specimens and in pure and mixed stands on two estates in the south Ukraine. The oldest trees are 95 years old, and most of the stands are 30-60 years old. Results indicate that J. virginiana is fully acclimatized in this region, producing abundant natural regeneration and equaling Quercus robur and Gleditsia triacanthos in its resistance to drought. It competes successfully with steppe and weed vegetation, but is very sensitive to shade and should be grown only in pure stands.

691. Rolfe, G.L.; Boggess, W.R. 1973. Soil conditions under old field and forest cover in southern Illinois. Soil Science Society of America. 37(2): 314-318. 24 refs.

Soil conditions were compared under variously eroded old fields abandoned in the 1930's and carrying seral hardwoods and Juniperus virginiana with grasses and herbs. Conditions were (a) old-field plantations of Pinus echinata aged 30-35 years, (b) native hardwood stands, and (c) for three soil types. Under (c), the amount of organic matter and the concentrations of exchangeable Ca and Mg were higher and soil bulk density was lower than under (a) and (b). Under (b), bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, and concentrations of Ca and Mg were improved in comparison with (a), but the content of organic matter was higher under (a). No significant differences in pH were noted. It is concluded that the introduced pine seral stage has considerably ameliorated soil conditions since the fields were abandoned, and there is a trend towards conditions typical of native hardwood stands.

692. Rothenberger, S.J. 1989. Extent of woody vegetation on the prairie in eastern Nebraska, 1855-1857. In: Bragg, T.B.; Stubbendieck, J., eds. Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference: prairie pioneers: ecology, history, and culture; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Printing: 15-18.

Early surveyors' notes from five counties bordering the Platte River in eastern Nebraska were utilized to measure the extent of original woody vegetation in this region. These data were compared to field studies from the same area made from 1979 to 1983, were used to determine areas of prairie - forest transition, and were used to tabulate the extent of woody vegetation in the lower Platte River Valley at the time of European settlement (1855-1857). Using a modified importance value based on relative density and relative dominance of witness trees, the highest ranking presettlement tree species were cottonwood (Populus deltoides Marsh. spp. monilifera (Ait.) Eckenw.), bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.), elms (Ulmus spp.), willows (Salix spp.), and black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.). The original survey indicated the presence of single trees and tree clusters within the original prairie vegetation of eastern Nebraska. Trees are presently more widespread, and their composition differs from the original woody vegetation. Presently, cottonwood, bur oak, American linden (Tilia americana L.), and rough-leaved dogwood (Cornus drummondii Meyer) are more common than they were 130 years ago. Includes discussion of occurrences of eastern redcedar during the 130 year period between surveys.

693. Ryker, R.A. 1958. Conifers vs. hardwoods on old-field sites. Sta. Note 22. Columbus, OH: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Central States Forest Experiment Station. 2 p.

After 11 years, findings corroborate earlier results. The most successful softwood species, in order, are: loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, white pine. Height growth of the pines and eastern redcedar was similar on the slightly eroded and severely eroded sites.

694. Rykiel, E.J.; Cook, T.L. 1986. Hardwood-redcedar clusters in the post oak savanna of Texas. Southwestern Naturalist. 31(1): 73-78.

695. Sabuco, J.J. 1990. Exploring the native range. Part I. American Nurseryman. 172(10): 28-30, 32-37.

In this survey of American native trees and shrubs for landscaping, the following tall-growing species are recommended and described: Acer spicatum, Amelanchier alnifolia, Cornus alternifolia, Hamamelis virginiana, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus strobus cv. Umbraculifera, Styrax americana, and Viburnum prunifolium.

696. Schmidt, T.L. 1991. Factors influencing establishment of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) on rangeland. J. Ser. 10137. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, Agriculture Research Division. 4 p.

697. Schmidt, T.L.; Stubbendieck, J. 1993. Factors influencing eastern redcedar seedling survival on rangeland. Journal of Range Management. 46(5): 448-451. 22 refs.

Subplots of 10 transplanted eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) seedlings were replicated at two sites in west-central Nebraska. Plots were established in 1987 and 1988 under three different grazing levels: actively grazed; actively grazed until 1987 and then fenced from grazing; and not grazed for more than 50 years. Split-plots within the three grazing levels were established on three different aspects: north-facing, south-facing, and flat. Seedling survival was evaluated 6, 18, and 30 months after establishment. The year that the seedling was established influenced survival after 18 months. Grazing effects and aspect were significant factors in the survival of seedlings for all three evaluation periods. Highest survival in relation to grazing occurred where seedlings were transplanted into plots that were grazed until 1987 and then fenced (57 percent plus or minus; 1.5 percent). Lowest survival rates in relation to grazing were for areas that were not grazed for more than 50 years (40 percent plus or minus; 3.0 percent). North-facing slopes had the highest survival after 30 months (65 percent plus or minus; 2.4 percent). South-facing slopes had the lowest survival after 30 months (34 percent plus or minus; 2.9 percent). Land managers may be able to reduce eastern redcedar seedling establishment on grazed rangelands through different grazing practices.

698. Smith, C.C.; Hamrick, J.L.; Kramer, C.L. 1990. The advantage of mast years for wind pollination. American Naturalist. 136(2): 154-166. 34 refs.

Mast years are defined as years of large seed crops within species of perennial plants with synchronous extreme annual fluctuation in reproductive effort. A model describing the relationship between pollen production and fruit production during mast years is outlined, using data on Pinus contorta from 17 sites in the western U.S.A. Problems related to the seven assumptions on which the model is based are examined. Relaxing five of these alters, but does not eliminate, the advantages of mast years. To retain the benefits of mast years, male and female reproductive effort must vary synchronously and the cost of producing a female must be nearly the same, whether or not fertilization occurs. These assumptions tend to be true for gymnosperms and angiosperms of boreal forests, but false for wind-pollinated angiosperms and one gymnosperm (Juniperus virginiana) of temperate deciduous forests.

699. Smith, S.D.; Stubbendieck, J. 1990. Production of tall-grass prairie herbs below eastern redcedar. Prairie Naturalist. 22(1): 13-18. 20 refs.

Above-ground forage production under Juniperus virginiana and in the interstitial zone was measured in tall-grass prairie sites at Raymond and Ashland, Nebraska, in 1985 and 1986. Dominant grasses in the interstitial zone were Andropogon gerardii, Bouteloua curtipendula, Schizachyrium scoparium, Dichanthelium (Panicum) oligosanthes var. scribnerianum, Carex eleocharis, and Agropyron smithii (Elymus smithii) whereas canopy zone grasses included Bromus japonicus, Poa pratensis, and C. heliophila. Canopy zone biomass production averaged 83 percent less than the interstitial zone. Reductions in light (averaging 85 percent) and available soil water (11.5 percent) are suggested as two possible explanations.

700. Spurr, S.H. 1940. The influence of two Juniperus species on soil reaction. Soil Science Society of America. 50: 289-294.

Both Juniperus virginiana and J. communis altered the pH of old field soils in the vicinity of New Haven. The first species raised the pH of the upper part of the mineral soil and lowered it at a depth of 6 inches. J. communis, on the other hand, lowered the pH at both depths. Tentatively, it was concluded that the addition of litter was a highly important factor influencing the pH of the upper part of mineral soil, and withdrawal of soluble substances by the roots appeared to be of similar importance at a 6-inch depth.

701. Stefanescu, P. 1960. Afforestation with J. virginiana under the site conditions of the degraded areas in the plains and hill zone of Transylvania. Revista Padurilor. 75(6): 321-324. 3 refs. Rumanian.

Gives details of trial plantings made in 1956 with planting stock of different ages and sizes, with and without protective shade. Better survival and growth were obtained with 1-year than with 2-year seedlings, with small (less than 25 cm) than with large (greater than 25 cm) 2-year seedlings, and with shaded than with unshaded plots.

702. Steyermark, J.A. 1940. Studies of the vegetation of Missouri. I. Natural plant associations and succession in the Ozarks of Missouri. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago Botanical Series. 9(5): 349-475.

A redcedar climax occurs over an eroded limestone substratum eventually covered by a sugar maple-white oak association.

703. Stoeckeler, J.H.; Rudolf, P.O. 1949. Winter injury and recovery of conifers in the Upper Midwest. Sta. Pap. 18. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Lake States Forest Experiment Station. 20 p.

In several localities in Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, redcedar in either natural or planted stands suffered only light damage during the severe winter of 1947-1948.

704. Tolstead, W.L. 1941. Plant communities and secondary succession in south-central South Dakota. Ecology. 22: 322-328.

Prairie communities are the major climax types in the region described, and tree communities occur only in special habitats. Pinus scopulorum is found on limy sandstone outcrops on the edges of valleys; and deciduous woodlands of Populus sargentii, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, F. lanceolata, Ulmus americana, Celtis occidentalis, Salix amygdaloides, Acer negundo, Quercus macrocarpa, and Juniperus virginiana occur in the valleys. In 1936 and 1937, drought destroyed 75-85 percent of the deciduous trees in ravines with silt-loam soils where permanent ground water was not accessible, but trees and shrubs near springs or streams did not suffer materially. The communities of Pinus scopulorum did not suffer losses from drought.

705. Traci, C. 1960. The growth of some exotic tree species on degraded soils in the Aries Valley. Revista Padurilor. 75(5): 292-294. 2 refs. Rumanian.

Presents notes on increment of 25-year stands of Quercus borealis, Pseudotsuga taxifolia, Pinus banksiana, P. strobus, and Juniperus virginiana on sites of varying soils, slopes, and altitudes. All, except P. banksiana, have done fairly well at 600-700 m altitudes, and J. virginiana merits large-scale planting on eroded soils.

706. Tyndall, R.W. 1992. Historical considerations of conifer expansion in Maryland serpentine "barrens." Castanea. 57(2): 123-131.

Conifers have spread rapidly in four protected serpentine areas in Maryland during the past 50 years. In three areas, more than 80 percent of grassland and savanna seral stages have succeeded to woodland and forest dominated by Pinus virginiana or this species with Juniperus virginiana. Before settlement was effected circa 1750, Native American fire hunting practices maintained vast areas of serpentine grassland and oak savanna. After settlement, livestock grazing apparently replaced Indian fires as the primary factor inhibiting woody plant succession in many areas including Soldiers Delight. Areas not grazed succeeded to forest, probably deciduous, and the regional abundance of these relatively fire-intolerant conifers probably increased substantially. Cessation of grazing and other disturbances such as logging by the mid-1900's apparently have allowed these conifers to spread rapidly in remaining serpentine openings. Although seasonal drought may slow the rate of conifer succession, extant grasslands and savannas will disappear without major perturbations such as logging and fire.

707. Tyndall, R.W.; Farr, P.M. 1989. Vegetation structure and flora of a serpentine pine-cedar savanna in Maryland (USA). Castanea. 54(3): 191-199.

The phytosociology and flora of a serpentine pine-cedar savanna were studied in Harford County, Maryland. This community comprises 69 vascular plant taxa, including 2 taxa that are restricted in Maryland to serpentine soil (Talinum teretifolium and Cerastium arvense var. villosum) and 1 species that is "highly state rare" (Panicum flexile). In the ground layer, 99 percent of the vegetative cover was perennial and half of it was graminoid. About 40 percent of herbaceous cover was produced by Andropogon scoparius and Aristida purpurascens. Fire suppression may have contributed to the abundance of Pinus virginiana and Juniperus virginiana.

708. Ugarte, E.A. 1987. The hill prairies of northeast Iowa: vegetation and dynamics. Dissertation Abstracts International, B. Science and Engineering. 48(4): 950-B.

Patterns of plant community organization in 35 hill prairies from northeastern Iowa were studied. The influence of grazing, invasion by woody species, and habitat factors on diversity and dominant species distribution was also investigated. The invasive process of the prairies by Juniperus virginiana was assessed by studying spatial distribution, age, and size structure of four populations under different ecological conditions. The results indicate that hill prairies from northeastern Iowa are part of a continuum that connects them to the tall grass prairie that once covered Iowa. They make up the driest part of the gradient and converge in structure with those hill prairies in Wisconsin, Illinois, and Minnesota. Five community types were distinguished and described. Andropogon gerardii, A. scoparius, Sporobolus heterolepis, and Bouteloua curtipendula, the most important grasses, as well as Rhus glabra, behaved differently under various conditions of topography, moisture availability, and grazing intensity. Invasion of hill prairies by R. glabra seems to be related to fire suppression. R. glabra is probably involved in a facilitation-like mechanism that promotes the establishment of J. virginiana, when grazing is eliminated. Progressive or massive invasions of hill prairies by J. virginiana can culminate in closed communities with total elimination of prairie species.

709. USDA Forest Service. 1951. Rehabilitation of forest soils: litter and site index of loblolly pine. Rep. SO-22. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 3 p.

A study in northern Mississippi indicated that litter under loblolly pine may weigh 6 tons per acre more than that under eastern redcedar, but that the proportion of Ca and of excess base is higher in the latter. Herbaceous cover appeared to be inferior to either species in soil-building characteristics. An empirical investigation of soil site relationships on the Bankhead National Forest in Alabama has led to a scheme of site valuation in which the loblolly site index is estimated at 77 + topographic score + aspect score + gradient/soil score. The last-named is read from a table; topographic score is 0 for flat or broad ridge tops, + 4 for bottoms or lower slopes, and - 2 for upper or middle slopes and narrow ridge tops; while aspect score is 0 for exposure within 22 1/2o of due west or east, + 8 for more northerly aspects, and - 3 for more southerly aspects.

710. USDA Forest Service. 1955. Pines thrive and hardwoods fail on Ozark old fields. Rep. SO-16. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 16-17.

In plantings made in 1950, loblolly, Virginia, and shortleaf pine have shown best development. Liriodendron tulipifera, black walnut, white oak, eastern redcedar, eastern white pine, and pitch pine showed either poor survival, or poor growth, or both; black locust was heavily infested with borers. In general, conifers grew best on loamy sands, and surviving hardwoods grew best on cherty silt-loam sites.

711. University of Toronto, Glendon Hall Faculty. 1966. The effects of four plantations species on certain soil properties. For. Res. Rep. 4/5. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto, Glendon Hall Faculty.

Experimental plantations of Picea abies, Juniperus virginiana, Fraxinus americana, and Thuja occidentalis were established in 1936 on level ground in Ontario, on a clay-loam soil with impeded drainage, previously cultivated for agricultural crops. Soil pits were excavated in 1966 in each plantation, the profiles were examined, and soil samples were analyzed. The upper 20 cm of soil from the P. abies plantation had markedly lower pH values (6-6.5) than that under the other species (7-7.5). There was a markedly higher content of organic C under P. abies and J. virginiana than under the other two species, and total N values tended to parallel organic C differences. Exchange cation values and P content showed no clear relation to species.

712. Voigt, G.K. 1965. Nitrogen recovery from decomposing tree leaf tissue and forest humus. Soil Science Society of America. 29(6): 756-759. 23 refs.

Recovery of N from decomposing leaf litter of Alnus rugosa, Cornus florida, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Tsuga canadensis. Juniperus virginiana and Pinus resinosa were studied under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Weight loss and N deficits in decomposing tissue were more marked in hardwoods than in conifers. There was no pronounced species correlation between Ca concentration of the leaf litter and either weight loss or N deficit, but N deficit was increased in some cases by addition of CACO3. Considerable variation in availability of N to Pseudotsuga taxifolia seedlings was observed in soil cultures where N originated from decomposing leaf tissue or from humus samples collected under each species. Recovery of N ranged from about 60 to over 90 percent of the original N content.

713. Vrcelj-Kitic, D. 1963. Locations of Juniperus virginiana in Vojvodina and possibilities of increasing its cultivation. Sumarstvo. 16(6/9): 275-281. 11 refs. Serbo-Croatian.

Presents notes on the soils on which this species is grown in Yugoslavia, with growth data from two sites.

714. Ware, S.; Redfearn, P.L., Jr.; Pyrah, G.L.; Weber, W.R. 1992. Soil pH, topography and forest vegetation in the central Ozarks. American Midland Naturalist. 128(1): 40-52.

In a detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) ordination, 81 forested sites in the southern Missouri (U.S.A.) Ozarks fell into three different groups. Groups I and II were upland, and Group III consisted of 17 bottomland stands with high importance of Platanus occidentalis. In Group I (34 upland stands), Quercus alba, Q. velutina, Q. rubra, and Carya texana codominated in various combinations; Q. velutina reached higher importance percentage (I.V.) at higher elevation above the streams and on more acid soils, whereas Q. alba was most important at lesser heights above the streams and on less acid soils. Pinus echinata and Q. stellata were concentrated at opposite ends of a DCA ordination of Group I, with Q. stellata (I.V.) highest on southern and western aspects and ridge tops and with P. echinata on various aspects. Quercus and Carya were reproducing well in all Group I stands and Acer saccharum was reproducing well in only a few. In Group II (30 upland stands generally with higher pH than Group I stands), a DCA ordination revealed a vegetational gradient correlated with aspect, with Juniperus virginiana stands on southern and western aspects at one end and stands with Tilia americana at the other end. Quercus muehlenbergii decreased in importance from the Juniperus end toward the Tilia end, whereas Acer saccharum increased over the same gradient. High abundance of Fraxinus americana and Ulmus rubra occurred where Acer saccharum was abundant. Quercus rubra, the only species important in both Group I and Group II, was abundant all across the Group II ordination, but was most important toward the Tilia end. Quercus spp. were not reproducing well in Group II stands, whereas Acer saccharum was, even in stands at the Juniperus end of the ordination. The differential reproduction of Quercus spp. vs. Acer saccharum on more acid vs. less acid to basic soils suggests that not only present composition but also potential (sapling layer) vegetation is related to soil pH.

715. Webb, R.S. 1990. Growing redcedar in Florida. Circ. 183A. Gainesville, FL: Florida Cooperative Extension Service. 5 p.

716. Welbourne, F.F., Jr. 1962. The comparative ecology of two canyons and an upland area in west central Oklahoma. Dissertation Abstracts International, B. Science and Engineering. 23(3): 810-811.

Devil's Canyon (a) and Howerton Canyon (b) support a forest-type vegetation, and the upland (c) around (a) supports a scrubby savanna type. On (a), which supports the most mesic vegetation and contains several disjunct species from the east, the dominant arborescent species are Acer saccharum, one of the disjuncts, and Ulmus rubra; (a) had the highest amounts of total N and P, organic C, and soil moisture, and the lowest mean weekly maximum temperature. In (b), which has fewer mesic species and no disjuncts, the dominant species is Juglans nigra; temperatures, total N, organic C, and soil moisture were intermediate between (a) and (c) and total P was lower than (a) and equal to (c). On (c), the vegetation consists almost entirely of Quercus marilandica and Juniperus virginiana; it had the lowest amounts of organic C, total N, and soil moisture, and the highest values for insolation, evaporation, and temperature. Differences in soil reaction and texture, and in amounts of exchangeable K between the three areas were small. Studies were made on the N and soil-moisture requirements of herbaceous species in the areas.

717. Wheeler, A.G., Jr. 1992. Chinaola quercicola new record rediscovered in several specialized plant communities in the southeastern United States (Heteroptera: Microphysidae). Entomological Society of Washington. 94(2): 249-252.

Described from a female collected in Florida in 1927, Chinaola quercicola Blatchley has been known only from the holotype, which was thought to have been destroyed. That specimen has been found, and populations of this native microphysid have been discovered in South Carolina and Virginia. Its occurrence in specialized community types including granite outcrops, a shale barren, and a pitch pine-scrub oak barren and its association with lichen-covered branches of redcedar, Juniperus virginiana, and scrub oak, Quercus ilicifolia, are discussed.

718. Wherry, E.T. 1922. Soil acidity preferences of some eastern conifers. Journal of Forestry. 20: 488-496.

Eastern redcedar reached maximum development on limestone barrens in Tennessee. It became prominent on basic igneous rocks, calcareous clays, and various other substrata where lime was available near the surface.

719. Wilde, S.A. 1946. Soil-fertility standards for game food plants. Journal of Wildlife Management. 10: 77-81.

Describes characteristics of Wisconsin soils supporting eastern redcedar, standards of soil fertility for nurseries, and site requirements.

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