An Annotated Bibliography of Eastern Redcedar
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158. Abrahamson, L.P. 1983. Herbicides, an important component of the weed control program at Oklahoma State (Norman) Nursery. Screening and demonstration projects for Pinus taeda, Pinus nigra, Juniperus virginiana, includes phytotoxic effects. Tech. Publ. R8-1983-4. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Region 8: 171-191.
159. Abrahamson, L.P.; Burns, K.F. 1979. Herbicide screening for weed control in western forest nurseries - Great Plains segment. AFRI Res. Rep.-41. New York, NY: State University, Applied Forest Research Institute. 15 p. 9 refs.
Twelve herbicides were applied either after seeding or after germination to seven conifers and five broadleaved species in six nurseries. Weeds were collected from nursery plots and weighed. Survival and height of treated tree seedlings are tabulated as a percent of control values; phytotoxicity was variable. Post-seeding treatments were usually more effective.
160. Afanasiev, M.M. 1955. Storage of after-ripened seed of eastern redcedar. Tree Planters Notes. 21: 28-30. 1 ref.
Tests showed that storage of stratified Juniperus virginiana seed in ice at + 20o F for as long as 3 months does not impair its viability if germination does not occur in storage. Seed with radicles protruding through the endosperm showed injury after storage at + 20o F; storage at + 4o F and lower killed most of the seed. It is concluded that after-ripening and germination can be arrested by storing stratified but ungerminated seed at 15-20o F.
161. Afanasiev, M.M.; Cress, M. 1942. Producing seedlings of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.). Bull. B-256. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 21 p.
The authors report on a satisfactory method of handling seed of Juniperus virginiana and on some of the experimental work on which the method is based. Information is presented on the collecting, storing, cleaning and treatment of seed and on the growing of seedlings from after-ripened seed. Delayed germination in seed of J. virginiana is caused by a dormant embryo; the seed requires stratification at low temperatures to complete after-ripening, the length of time required to complete this process varying with the individual seed. For the material reported on, after-ripening was completed after 70 days at a temperature of 41o F. Drying of after-ripened seed caused reversion to a secondary dormancy, which was overcome by stratification for a relatively short period. Temperature had a marked effect on germination of after-ripened seed of J. virginiana, the optimum temperature being 50o F with only a slight reduction in germination at 60o and 70o F. One year of storage of cleaned seed of J. virginiana at low temperature (41o F) and of dry berries at room temperature (70-90o F) did not reduce the viability of the seed. Germination was not affected markedly by the reaction of the medium when the pH of the latter varied between 4.4 and 8.4. The highest germination was obtained at a pH of 6.2.
162. Blomme, R.; Vanwezer, J. 1987. The grafting of conifers - VII. Verbondsnieuws voor de Belgische Sierteelt. 31(9): 591, 593, 595. Dutch.
Details are given of the recommended grafting techniques for 12 blue- and golden-leaved cultivars of Juniperus X media var. J. chinensis, J. chinensis, J. scopulorum, and J. virginiana. Propagation of the blue-leaved cultivars could be carried out from August to spring, but for the golden-leaved cultivars the summer months were unfavorable. Side-grafting gave the best results on rootstocks of J. virginiana or J. chinensis cv. Hetzii raised from cuttings. The optimum temperature for grafting was 16o C, and the use of supplementary lighting gave good results only for J. X media cv. Plumosa aurea. The age of the mother plant made little difference, but scions from vigorous plants gave the best results. The propagation period for all cultivars was 6 weeks, and greater than 90 percent success was achieved with most cultivars.
163. Box, B.H.; Beech, L.C. 1968. Vegetative propagation trials of eastern redcedar and Arizona cypress in the greenhouse. Tree Planters Notes. 19(3): 1-2.
A 5-second dip treatment in IBA and NAA (10,000 p.p.m.) produced a greater percent of rooted cuttings of Juniperus virginiana than untreated controls (82 vs. 55). Cupressus arizonica cuttings did not root effectively with any hormone treatment. Best results were obtained with the above-mentioned 5-second dip treatment, which produced roots on 25 percent of cuttings (vs. 0 on controls).
164. Buckley, A.R. 1957. The grafting of Juniperus virginiana varieties on rooted cuttings. Plant Propagator. 7: 81-83.
165. Burley, J. 1964. Effect of gibberellic acid on seed germination of Sitka Spruce. Forest Science. 10(2): 206-208. 14 refs.
Concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and 10 p.p.m. of gibberellic acid caused no significant differences in germination rate or capacity compared with distilled water. A solution of 100 p.p.m. significantly reduced germinative capacity at 35 days. A table summarizes the conflicting results obtained by 14 authors on the effects of gibberellin (stimulatory, nil, inhibitory) on the germination rate and capacity of Pinus spp. (7), Picea spp. (3), Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa, Juniperus virginiana, Larix leptolepis, and Pseudotsuga taxifolia.
166. Burns, R.M. 1960. Response of selected coniferous seeds to gibberellic acid. Pap. 1. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 13-16. 8 refs.
In tests on unstratified seeds (450 per species) with gibberellic acid as 10 percent K salt in concentrations of 0, 75, 150, 225, and 300 mg/liter in various forms, with or without a supplement, response was erratic within and between species. None of the seeds of Juniperus virginiana germinated, but 62 percent of the seeds recovered at the conclusion of the experiment, after 90 days, were apparently viable. The effect on germination of Pinus palustris was not significant, but responses appeared to increase with concentration, and distilled water appeared to be the best carrier. For P. taeda, germination rate, total germination, and height growth were significantly improved, being greatest at 150 mg/liter. In a second series, in which P. taeda seed was stratified at 34o F for 1-4 days in peat soaked with aqueous solutions of gibberellic acid in strengths from 6 to 200 mg/liter, germination was not significantly affected, but height growth responded positively to concentration and duration of treatment, with a maximum for 3 days at 150 mg.
167. Chylarecki, H. 1985. Planting coniferous trees and shrubs in the urban environment. Arboretum Kornickie. 30: 201-223. 47 refs. Polish.
Surveys potential species and varieties suitable for urban situations in Poland where conifers have generally been little used. Species from the Cupressaceae and Taxaceae tend to be more suited than Pinaceae. Some 51 suitable species/varieties are listed, notably Juniperus chinensis var. Columnaris, J. sabina var. Tamariscifolia, J. virginiana var. Tripartita, Taxus baccata var. Elegantissima, var. Overeinderi and var. Imperialis, Thuja orientalis var. Stricta, Thuja occidentalis var. Fastigiata, var. Mastersii and var. Umbraculifera, and the hybrids Juniperus X media var. Pfitzeriana (J. chinensis X J. sabina), Taxus X media var. Hicksii' (T. baccata X T. cuspidata) and Thuja X plicatoides (T. occidentalis X T. plicata). Picea pungens, dwarf varieties of P. abies, Abies concolor, Pinus cembra, and several Pinus nigra varieties are fairly resistant to industrial air pollution, and many of these are used in Silesia. A further 142 species are under trial in different urban situations.
168. Cobb, G.S. 1983. Medium pH and growth of two woody ornamentals as influenced by liming rate. Res. Rep. Auburn, AL: Auburn University, Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station. May: 6-7.
169. Cossitt, F.M. 1948. Mineral spirits weed conifer seedbeds. American Nurseryman. 88: 7, 14, 57.
Further experiments have been made with dry-cleaning fluid as a weedkiller in U.S. southern nurseries. Very weedy beds with weeds overtopping 2-inch seedlings require upwards of 120 gal/acre; smaller weeds, about the size of the seedlings, were eliminated by one application at the rate of 40 gal/acre. The use of a large spray outfit, capable of pressures of 200 pounds and covering 18 feet at one time, and having nozzles that produce a flat fan-shaped pattern, is considered best. Under certain conditions, not fully understood, some damage has been done to the foliage of seedlings. Apparently a correlation exists between the age of the seedlings, soil moisture, temperature, and the amount of spray. Seedlings less than a month old were sprayed in early May without any apparent damage; selected beds of the same seedlings sprayed in June with the temperature about 93o F showed a 30 percent loss; sprayings later in the same day at slightly lower temperatures caused no loss. On the other hand, heavy sprayings of 150 gal/acre on seedlings 4-7 months old, with the thermometer at 102o F, caused no serious damage or loss. Trials were made on Pinus palustris, P. caribaea, P. taeda, P. echinata, and Juniperus virginiana. All hardwoods sprayed were killed or seriously injured. Studies are now in progress to determine the effect of spraying on the survival of treated seedlings when planted out in forest areas.
170. Cotrufo, C. 1963. Citric acid stimulates seed germination. Plant Physiology. 38: Suppl. xiv.
Pinus taeda and Taxodium distichum seed responded to citric acid similarly to that of eastern white pine; Pinus echinata seed showed less response. The most striking results were obtained with seed of Juniperus virginiana. Total germination at 30 days was increased from 22 percent for untreated seed to 92 percent for seed soaked for 4 days in a 10,000 p.p.m. solution of citric acid (c.a.). With all these species, soaking in concentrations of 100 to 10,000 p.p.m. gave the best results. Concentrations greater than 100,000 p.p.m. showed toxic effects, viz., reduced and retarded germination. The c.a. pretreatment appears to complement the stratification requirements of these seeds. Studies are now in progress to elucidate the role of c.a. in increasing both speed of, and total, germination.
171. Cotrufo, C. 1963. Stimulation by citric acid of germination of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.). Nature. 199(48): 92-93. 5 refs.
Of several species tested J. virginiana showed the best response. In a factorial experiment using various chemical treatments, soaking and stratification periods, and temperatures on fresh seed, a 4-day soak in 10,000 p.p.m. citric acid before 90 days' stratification (one of the best treatments) gave 93 percent germination in 30 days vs. 73 percent for pre-soaking in water and 23 percent for no soaking.
172. Daigneault, L.; Chong, C. 1985. Rooting cuttings of thirteen woody ornamental species in response to willow extract and auxin. Plant Propagator. 31(4): 12-14. 11 refs.
Leafy cuttings of 13 species were treated with combinations of crude willow extract (1.6-10.0 g/100 ml water of freeze-dried powder from twigs of Salix alba var. tristis); 5,000 p.p.m. each of IAA, IBA and/or NAA; and/or 0.4 percent IBA in talc. Willow extract application increased rooting in three of four deciduous shrubs (Cornus alba cv. Elegantissima, Philadelphus coronarius cv. Aureus, and Ribes alpinum), in one of five evergreens (Juniperus chinensis cv. Mountbatten) but in none of four deciduous trees. Auxin application increased rooting in all evergreen species treated (J. chinensis cv. Mountbatten, J. virginiana cv. Sky Rocket, Pinus mugo subsp. mugo, P. sylvestris, and Taxus media). Auxin application inhibited rooting in the three above-named deciduous shrubs.
173. Dayharsh, V.J. 1934. Stratification vs. scarification for cedar seed. Plant Quart. 3. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 15-16.
174. DeBoer, S. 1951. Tests with growth substances, soil mixtures etc. for rooting cuttings. Jaarboek Proefstation voor de Boomkwekerij Boskoop: 27-59. Dutch.
Experiments were made on plants from 39 genera, including Acer palmatum var. atropurpureum, Ilex opaca, Juniperus virginiana var. glauca, Picea abies var. nidiformis, P. abies var. repens and P. omorika var. nana, Populus canescens, Quercus robur and Q. sessiliflora, Taxus cuspidata var. nana, Thuja occidentalis var. pyramidalis var. compacta, and Ulmus carpinifolia var. No. 62 'Bea Schwarz'. Results are tabulated.
175. Doran, W.L. 1952. Effects of treating cuttings of woody plants with both a root-inducing substance and a fungicide. American Society of Horticultural Science Proceedings. 60: 487-491.
Combined hormone and fungicidal treatment resulted in a maximum of 83 percent rooting of redcedar cuttings in 200 days.
176. Drori, A.; Meirowitz, A.; Ben Jaacov, J. 1983. Grafting junipers. Hassadeh. 63(10): 2138-2139. Hebrew.
The grafting of Juniperus virginiana cv. Grey Owl onto rootstocks of Cupressus sempervirens and Callitris cupressiformis in March and July is reported. The successful take was 70 percent, and plant development was normal over the 9 months of observation. The advantages of grafted as opposed to own-rooted Juniperus are discussed.
177. Ealy, R.P. 1960. The effect of a combined fungicide-hormone treatment on the propagation of redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) by cuttings. Process. Ser. P-367. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University. 5 p. 4 refs.
Cuttings of J. virginiana were treated with (a) a fungicide, Phygon XL (2,3-dichloro-1, 4-naphthaquinone 50 percent, in MgSO4) at 1 part to 3 parts talc; (b) a growth regulator, Hormodin III (0.8 percent IBA in talc); (c) equal parts of these two preparations; and (d) nothing. The highest percent of rooting occurred with (c). There were four times as many rooted cuttings with this treatment as with (d), indicating a probable synergistic effect; (a) and (b) produced little better rooting than (d).
178. Eastman, R.E. 1911. Care of the seed of red cedar. Forest Quarterly. 9: 173-174.
Stratification of seeds for approximately 17 months in sandboxes buried in soil or mulched with leaves, straw, or grass improved germination.
179. Engstrom, A. 1955. Polyethylene film for seedbed mulch. Tree Planters Notes. 21: 26-27.
Good germination of Juniperus virginiana seed in Oklahoma was obtained by applying ca. 1 inch of sawdust to the seedbeds after sowing, watering well, and then laying polyethylene film over the beds. Burlap is laid over the polyethylene, and both are pegged down. Sowing is in December and germination is usually complete by the middle of March, when the coverings are removed. The burlap is then laid over a lath shade for a further 10 days to provide shelter from sun and frost.
180. Gil Albert, F.; Boix, E. 1978. Effect of treatment with IBA on rooting of ornamental conifers. Acta Horticulturae. 79: 63-77.
Cuttings of Chamaecyparis, Juniperus, Thujopsis, Sequoia, Sequoiadendron, Thuja, and Taxus spp. and cvs were taken at different times of year. They were given a basal dip in an IBA solution and inserted in a mixture of 60-70 percent peat and 30-40 percent perlite. The best rooting was obtained as follows: (1) For C. pisifera and C. lawsoniana cvs, cuttings taken in July and treated with 8,000 p.p.m. IBA; (2) for Juniperus spp. in general, cuttings taken in November-December and treated with 4,000 p.p.m.; species responded differently and J. chinensis, J. communis, J. horizontalis, J. sabina, and J. squamata were far easier to root than J. scopulorum and J. virginiana; (3) for Thuja occidentalis and T. plicata cvs, cuttings taken in November and either treated with less than 4,000 p.p.m. or left untreated; T. orientalis varieties rarely rooted; (4) for Thujopsis dolabrata cv. variegata, cuttings taken in November-December and treated with 4,000 p.p.m.; (5) for Sequoiadendron giganteum, cuttings taken in July-August and treated with 4,000 p.p.m.; and (6) for Taxus baccata, cuttings taken in September-October and treated with 20,000 p.p.m. Regardless of treatment, virtually no cuttings of Sequoia sempervirens rooted.
181. Hall, T.J.; Bowes, S.A. 1984. Mycorrhizas and container-grown hardy ornamental nursery stock (HONS) production. In: 1982 annual report of the Glasshouse Crops Research Institute. West Sussex, UK: Littlehampton: 113-114.
Plants of Juniperus virginiana cultivar Skyrocket inoculated with a VA mycorrhiza, probably Glomus fasciculatus (G. fasciculatum), were 39 percent taller than non-mycorrhizal plants after 14 months when grown with half the recommended rate of slow-release fertilizer (2 g/l) and 14 percent taller than uninoculated controls receiving 4 g of fertilizer. With Magnolia soulangiana, the mean total stem length of VA-inoculated plants was 43 percent greater than that of control plants receiving 4 g of fertilizer.
182. Henry, P.H.; Blazich, F.A.; Hinesley, L.E. 1992. Vegetative propagation of eastern redcedar by stem cuttings. Horticultural Science. 27(12): 1272-1274. 13 refs.
Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) is gaining popularity as an ornamental tree. Seedling populations are very variable in phenotype, and vegetative propagation would allow the cloning of high quality trees for the ornamental and forestry industries. Studies were conducted on the effects of season, IBA application, genotype, crown position, type of cutting (straight vs. heel), cutting length, and stock plant age upon adventitious rooting of stem cuttings. Genotype had a strong influence on percentage rooting, root count, and root length of cuttings from 4-year-old trees. With trees of this age, percentage rooting was maximized (87 percent) with hardwood cuttings taken in January and treated with 5,000 p.p.m. IBA. Crown position from which cuttings were collected did not influence rooting. Straight cuttings, with or without a light wound, had a significantly higher rooting percentage (78 percent) than heel cuttings (52 percent). With 30-year-old trees, cuttings from the lower third of the crown had a significantly higher rooting percentage (67 percent) than cuttings from the middle third (43 percent). Better rooting was obtained with straight (68 percent) than with heel (47 percent) cuttings. Cutting length affected rooting, with root count and length being greater in longer cuttings. Increased tree age reduced rooting, although cuttings from 40-year-old trees retained substantial rooting capacity.
183. Henry, P.H.; Blazich, F.A.; Hinesley, L.E. 1992. Nitrogen nutrition of containerized eastern redcedar. I. Growth, mineral nutrient concentrations, and carbohydrate status. Horticultural Science. 27(4): 563-567. 24 refs.
Containerized seedlings of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) were fed weekly for 175 days with a solution containing 50 p.p.m. K, and either 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, or 640 p.p.m. N. Plant height, stem diameter, and shoot and root DW increased asymptotically with applied N; 640 p.p.m. N was supraoptimal. Growth after 175 (height, stem diameter) and 180 (shoot and root DW) days was optimal (90 percent of maximum) at N concen trations of 115, 155, 230, and 105 p.p.m., respectively. Plant growth in terms of height was optimum at a foliar N concentration of 1.5 percent. Foliar concentrations of N, P, and K increased in treated plants over the duration of the experiment, while Ca, Mg, and Mn decreased or remained constant. Starch concentration of fertilized plants decreased sharply after initiation of the experiment, but controls showed little change during the first 120 days. Sucrose concentration remained constant over the summer but increased sharply in late autumn. At 180 days, foliar concentrations of starch, sucrose, hexose, N, P, K, and B increased asymptotically with applied N; concentrations of Ca, Mg, and Mn decreased.
184. Henry, P.H.; Blazich, F.A.; Hinesley, L.E. 1992. Nitrogen nutrition of containerized eastern redcedar. II. Influence of stock plant fertility on adventitious rooting of stem cuttings. Horticultural Science. 27(4): 568-570. 20 refs.
Hardwood stem cuttings of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), taken from containerized stock plants fed weekly with 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, or 640 p.p.m. N, were treated with 7,500 p.p.m. IBA and placed under intermittent mist for 12 weeks. Foliar starch and sucrose concentrations within cuttings at the time of excision were significantly correlated with percentage rooting and root length, respectively. Of the mineral nutrients analyzed (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and B), only B and K were significantly correlated with rooting response. A threshold N level (20 p.p.m.), applied weekly, maximized rooting; higher concentrations decreased response. Although N fertilization of stock plants affected adventitious rooting, there were no significant correlations between foliar N levels and measurements of rooting response.
185. Hess, C.E. 1954. Black mold (Chalaropsis thielavioides) appears on evergreens (Cryptomeria japonic, Juniperus virginiana, Thuja spp.). American Nurseryman. 100(8): 36-37.
This mold fungus, not previously recorded on Coniferae, caused serious loss of grafts in U.S. nurseries in the 1954 season.
186. Hildebrand, D.M.; Dinkel, G.B. 1988. Evaluation of methyl bromide, Basamid granular, and solar heating for pre-planting pest control for fall-sown eastern redcedar at Bessey Nursery. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-41. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 13 p.
187. Hulea, A.; Radu, S.; Cucuian, E. 1962. Establishing a technique of nursery practice for some exotic coniferous species. Revista Padurilor. 77(9): 519-525. Rumanian.
Describes techniques employed in Rumania for raising nursery stock of Abies cephalonica, A. faxoniana, A. nordmanniana, Cephalotaxus drupacea, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Cryptomeria japonica, Juniperus virginiana, Larix leptolepis, Pinus strobus, Pseudotsuga taxifolia, Taxodium distichum, Thuja occidentalis, T. orientalis, T. plicata, Thujopsis dolabrata, and Tsuga canadensis.
188. Jesinger, R.; Hopp, R.J. 1967. The effect of season on the propagation of conifers from cuttings. Gartenwelt. 67(15): 309-311. German.
Tsuga canadensis, Abies concolor, Pinus mugo, Juniperus virginiana and ornamental varieties of Juniperus, Thuja occidentalis, Picea glauca, and P. pungens were tested in a propagating house at Burlington, Vermont, at soil temperatures of 20 or 26o C and with various concentrations of IBA. Rooting behavior and optimum season for taking cuttings varied greatly. Season was more important than soil temperature (the majority of species preferred 26o) and concentration of IBA (increases beyond 0.8 percent had little effect). Maximum rooting percentages exceeded 50 except for P. mugo, J. virginiana, and P. pungens.
189. Jorgensen, P.E.; Eriksen, E.N. 1978. Investigations of air content in root medium and root quality in the overwintering of container plants at different drainages in open frame (Juniperus virginiana). Acta Horticulturae. 79: 153-159.
190. Kalmar, S. 1973. Conifer propagation by cuttings. Kertgazdasag. 5(4): 67-69. 2 refs. Hungarian.
This is a first report from Hungary of the successful use of IBA and NAA for rooting Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Picea abies 'Conica', Thuja occidentalis 'Columna', T. plicata, and Juniperus virginiana. For a 1-minute dip the best concentration of both substances was 3,000 p.p.m., and for 4 hours soaking the best concentrations were 200 or 400 p.p.m. IBA and 400 or 600 p.p.m. NAA.
191. Keen, R.A. 1951. Cutting grafts of juniper: a progress report. American Society of Horticulture Proceedings. 58: 298-300.
Cutting grafts, in which the stock was an unrooted cutting, were used for the propagation of junipers. While the percentage of success was low, the process was considered satisfactory.
192. Korac, M. 1973. A method of rooting cuttings. Gartenwelt. 73(4): 83-84. German.
The number of cuttings of Pinus sylvestris and Juniperus virginiana rooted was greatly increased when the cuttings were taken from lignified long shoots that had been treated 2-21/2 months earlier with IAA after ring-barking and had formed callus while still on the mother plant.
193. Kostevic, Z.K. 1964. Propagation of some exotic conifers by cuttings. Byulleten Glavnogo Botanicheskogo Sada. 53: 44-47. 5 refs. Russian.
Gives results of experiments in rooting cuttings of Picea pungens cv. argentea, Abies concolor, Chamaecyparis pisifera cv. plumosa, Thuja occidentalis cv. ericoides, and Juniperus virginiana in open boxes and in greenhouses. Planting of cuttings in winter or early spring generally gave the best results.
194. Locklear, J. 1987. Juniperus virginiana 'Taylor'. Swarthmore, PA: Garden Journal of the American Association of Botanical Gardening and Arboriculture. 2(1): 16 p.
195. Lokvenc, T. 1979. Problems of deformation of roots at containerized plants. Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Cechosloveniae. 11: 33-47. Czech.
Field observations were made on the root systems of various coniferous species that were container-planted in Czechoslovakia up to 14 years earlier, i.e., since the introduction of container planting. Evaluation was mainly subjective and visual owing to problems in obtaining numerical data. Some data are tabulated for the cross-sectional area of horizontally and vertically growing roots of Norway spruce at 2 and 11 years old. Containers restricting the growth of roots, such as polyethylene bags, caused marked and generally persistent deformation of roots, whereas paper pots (without bottoms) and Jiffy pots, which give little or no restriction of root growth, resulted in nearly natural root systems. Norway spruce tolerated polyethylene bags better than the other species, since the deformed roots died off and were replaced by adventitious roots from above the container. Scots pine and Juniperus virginiana grown in bags or Kopparfors tubes became increasingly unstable with age owing to inadequate development of lateral roots.
196. Lorenzi, R.; Tognoni, F. 1977. Cuttings propagation of Picea-Abies excelsa Ohlendorffii and Juniperus virginiana Skyrocket changes of natural and induced rooting capacity. Rivista della Ortoflorofruttic Italiana. 61(3): 181-197. Italian.
197. Luban, E. 1960. Vegetative propagation of conifers by grafting. Revista Padurilor. 75(3): 149-151. Rumanian.
Gives results of experiments made at Bucharest with a number of ornamental conifers. No success was obtained with Abies, Pinus or Picea, but varying degrees of success were obtained with Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (65-75 percent), Cryptomeria japonica (58 percent), Juniperus virginiana (34 percent), J. sabina (41 percent), J. communis (94 percent), Taxus baccata (82 percent), and Thuja occidentalis (45-88 percent).
198. Lumis, G.P.; Johnson, A.G. 1980. Transplanting method influences survival and growth of bare-root coniferous nursery stock. Journal of Arboriculture. 6(10): 261-268. 12 refs.
Ornamental conifers were transplanted either bare-root, using several methods to reduce moisture loss, or as conventional balled and burlapped (BB) plants. Treatment with a foliar antidesiccant, Wilt-Pruf (an organic polymer of B-pinene), prior to lifting and followed by plant storage in a polyethylene bag before transplanting proved most satisfactory. All bare-root transplanted bushes of Juniperus virginiana cv. Grey Rock (60-70 cm), stored for 5 days, and J. chinensis cv. Keteleeri (1.5-1.75 m), stored for 16 days, survived and grew as well as the controls (BB). A more difficult-to-transplant subject, Taxus X media cv. Andersoni (50-60 cm), treated with Wilt-Pruf and/or enclosed in polyethylene bags and stored for 5 days showed foliar injury (needle loss and shoot dieback) no more severe than that of controls; however, plants treated with a sodium alginate root antidesiccant alone suffered more damage. Bare-root plants of Picea abies (1.25-1.5 m) treated with Wilt-Pruf and stored for 14 days in polyethylene bags were of equal quality to controls, but foliar injury and poor shoot growth were evident on untreated bare-root plants. Thuja occidentalis cv. Pyramidalis (1-1.25 m) stored for 14 days and transplanted bare-root were of unacceptable quality, regardless of treatment.
199. Mahlstede, J.P. 1951. Further developments in weed control in established nursery stock. Research Report of the 8th Annual North Central Weed Control Conference. 110 p.
The following species were tolerant to spring and summer applications of Crag Herbicide 1 (sodium 2,4-dichlorophenyl-ethylenedioxysulphate) at a rate of 4 and 6 lb/acre, and to Stoddard solvent at 75 gal/acre: Juniperus virginiana, J. procumbens (3rd and 4th year), Syringa sp., and Philadelphus sp. (2nd year).
200. Mahno, G.F. 1967. Raising conifers in the Khorezm oasis. Lesnoe Khozyaistvo. 4: 42-44. Russian.
Describes experience since 1951 in direct sowing and planting of Juniperus virginiana and Thuja orientalis at the Kara Kum research station, stressing the special measures such as flushing irrigation that are imposed by the conditions there.
201. Meines, M.K. 1965. Juniper (Juniperus virginiana) germination simplified. Tree Planters Notes. 70: 6-7. 1 ref.
Advocates, where possible, the sowing of fresh seed from berries gathered in September. This usually germinates in the following spring. Stored seed needs long and variable periods of stratification.
202. Meyer, J. 1981. The saga of eastern redcedars Juniperus virginiana, bonsai. Bonsai Journal, American Bonsai Society. 15(3): 62-64.
203. Minckler, L.S.; Downs, A.A. 1946. Machine and hand direct seeding of pine and cedar in the Piedmont. Tech. Note SE-67. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 10 p.
This is a guide to direct sowing of Pinus echinata, P. taeda, and Juniperus virginiana in the Piedmont region of Virginia and Carolina. It briefly reviews the results of experimental and pilot-plant trials of both hand and mechanical methods of direct sowing and describes in detail the recommended methods.
204. Oesterbye, U.; Eriksen, E.N. 1971. Propagation of conifers by cuttings: treatments with growth substances and planting methods. Tidsskrift for Planteavl. 75(6): 799-806. 6 refs. Danish.
Describes experiments in which cuttings of two cultivars of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, two of Juniperus virginiana, and one of C. obtusa were treated with NAA and/or IBA at four concentrations from 1,000 to 8,000 p.p.m. under controlled mist or under plastic. Reactions varied, but mist propagation tended to produce higher rooting percents and higher numbers of roots per cutting than plastic covers. NAA tended to stimulate the number of roots most, but at the higher concentrations tested it caused many losses. IBA stimulated rooting in all concentrations and caused little damage. NAA/IBA behaved more like IBA than NAA. However, overall improvement in rooting percent by growth substances was only 12-13 percent compared with untreated controls.
205. Over, G.; Bunemann, G. 1983. Re-use of water in nurseries. Deutsche Baumschule. 35(9): 341-345. German.
Re-use of irrigation water applied to plants of seven genera (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Juniperus virginiana, Cotoneaster congestus, Hypericum patulum, Prunus laurocerasus, Pyracantha crenato-serrata, and Ulmus carpinifolia) grown in 3-liter containers on plastic sheeting is discussed. The necessity for an adequate (900 m3/ha) plastic-lined reservoir covered with floating black plastic to control algal growth is stressed. Monitoring of salt concentrations by electrical conductivity measurement and by water analysis is essential, particularly when herbicides are used. Fertilizer application should be reduced in relation to the nutrient level in the re-used water. Tap water may have to be used where there is excess salt, herbicide residue, excess N late in the season, or spread of fungi. Water re-use allows economy of nutrients but involves expense on water analysis and algal control.
206. Panova, L.N. 1985. Propagation of junipers in southern steppe conditions in the Ukraine. Lesnoe Khozyaistvo. 12: 34. Russian.
In the Askaniya-Nova Botanical Park in the Ukraine, seeds of J. virginiana and J. scopulorum are scarified with sand and sown in autumn, or are stratified at 0-5o C and sown in spring. Other species, especially ornamental species and forms of J. communis and J. sabina, are propagated by cuttings in a cold frame under plastic; callus forms in 45-50 days, and roots form in 75-80 days. The best time for planting cuttings is late March, and the optimum length of cuttings is 8-15 cm. Some details are given of the growth rates of seedlings and rooted cuttings, and of the ages at which they can be planted out.
207. Pavlenko, F.A. 1959. Standards for Juniperus virginiana seedlings. Lesnoe Khozyaistvo. 12(4): 73. Russian.
Measurements of 4,000 seedlings showed that survival and increment after transplanting are closely related to the seedling's dimensions. On this basis, two size-grades of seedlings are proposed for the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the U.S.S.R., the better being: stem length 12 cm, root collar diameter 3 mm, root length 22-30 cm (for 1- to 2-year plants).
208. Pinney, J.J. 1970. A simplified process for grafting Junipers. American Nurseryman. 131(10): 7, 82-84.
Describes the use of polythene-lined, heated greenhouses for the propagation of ornamental junipers by side-grafting (usually on Juniperus virginiana stocks). Newly grafted plants in saturated pots are plunged to the tops of the unions in moist peat on benches kept at ca. 70o F by thermostatically controlled electric coils laid beneath cloth under the peat. By watering the floors and spraying the tops of the plants through mist nozzles, ca. 100 percent humidity is maintained without watering the plants; the risk of water entering the grafts and preventing callusing is thus eliminated.
209. Pounders, C.; Gilliam, C.H. 1983. Propagation of upright juniper. Res. Rep. Auburn, AL: Auburn University, Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station. 23 p.
210. Pounders, C.; Gilliam, C.H. 1985. Propagation of upright junipers in Alabama. Plant Propagator. 31(1): 8-9.
Cuttings of Juniperus virginiana cultivars Hillspire, Skyrocket, and Silver Spreader, J. chinensis cv. Blue Point, and J. scopulorum cv. Cologreen were treated with (1) IBA + NAA liquid dips with or without dimethyl sulphoxide or dimethyl formamide solvents or (2) a Hormodin No. 3 (IBA) talc dip and rooted in a bark-peat-shale medium. Rooting was scored on a scale of 1 (no callus) to 5 (well rooted). All cultivars showed equivalent response trends to treatments. Blue Point showed consistently lower root scores than the other cultivars for all treatments and was the only cultivar that benefited from the addition of a solvent, especially dimethyl formamide.
211. Prjahin, M.I. 1960. Evergreen trees and shrubs at Leninabad (Tadzhikistan). Botanicheskii Zhurnal. 45: (4): 588-592. Russian.
Leninabad lies in the dry subtropical zone, but winter temperatures occasionally drop to -20o C. Several species of evergreens possibly suitable for roadside, park, and green-belt planting have been tried since 1955 in the Leninabad Botanical Garden (in the open, but sometimes with various degrees of shelter in the winter). Notes are given on the performance of Phyllostachys aureus, Euonymus japonicus, Ligustrum lucidum, Rubus spp., Cupressus arizonica, C. sempervirens, C. lusitanica, Laurus nobilis, Prunus laurocerasus, Elaeagnus pungens, Magnolia grandiflora, Juniperus virginiana, Nerium oleander, Pyracantha coccinea, Pittosporum viridiflorum, Pinus brutia, and Zanthoxylum alatum.
212. Przeradzki, D.; Starck, J.R. 1984. Influence of mineral fertilization on the root system of conifer cuttings. Annals of Warsaw Agriculture University. SGGW AR, Horticulture. 12: 17-20. 10 refs. Polish.
In trials with Chamaecyparis pisifera cv. Squarrosa, Juniperus virginiana cv. Tripartita, and Taxus X media cv. Hicksii, heel cuttings treated with Seradix-2 (IBA) were struck in a 1:1 sphagnum peat: sand mixture on 12 April. Immediately after root initiation (25 June) the cuttings received foliar or soil-applied N, P, K, Ca, and Mg in different ratios. No significant differences were observed between the treated and control plants, indicating the low nutritional requirements of the three species during rooting.
213. Read, R.A.; Bagley, W.T. 1967. Effect of gibberellic acid spray on seedlings of eastern redcedar, bur oak, and red oak. Res. Note RM-82. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 2 p.
A 30-p.p.m. solution of gibberellic acid, sprayed onto potted seedlings of (a) Juniperus virginiana, (b) Quercus macrocarpa, and (c) Q. rubra two or three times per week, greatly increased height increment of (b) and (c), but only slightly increased that of (a).
214. Skroch, W.A. 1983. Weed control in newly planted conifers. Southern Weed Science Society. 36: 176.
In over-the-top applications of glyphosate to first-year plantings of Abies fraseri, Pinus virginiana, P. strobus, Tsuga canadensis, Picea abies, and Juniperus virginiana, T. canadensis was most tolerant shortly after bud break and P. abies and A. fraseri became more tolerant after the new candles hardened. All species showed good tolerance to oryzalin and napropamide, except for considerable damage to T. canadensis by oryzalin. At 2 oz/acre, Oust (sulfometuron-methyl) gave excellent control of Digitaria sanguinalis, Setaria sp., and Ambrosia sp. for more than 100 days; on Lakeland Sand at 4 oz/acre and on 3.5 percent organic matter and in a clay loam at 7 oz/acre, Oust caused some damage to P. strobus and A. fraseri, respectively. At 1 lb/acre + 1 percent crop oil, sethoxydim and fluazifop-butyl did not damage the conifers or control a 6- to 8-inch-high Secale cereal cover crop, but they controlled grass species very well.
215. USDA Forest Service. 1963. Nematode damage to nursery conifers controlled with chemicals. Res. Rep. 18. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.
Root-lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus penetrans) on Juniperus virginiana, Picea glauca, and P. pungens in Nebraska were controlled with Dowfume MC-2 and Vapam. Dowfume was better for spring planting, and Vapam was better for summer or autumn planting.
216. VanElk, B.C.M. 1964. Potting soil for stocks. Jaarboek Proefstation voor de Boomkwekerij Boskoop: 74-75. Dutch.
Includes a table showing the relative success in grafting various cultivars onto stocks of Acer palmatum, Betula pubescens, Fagus sylvatica, Juniperus virginiana, Picea abies, and Quercus robur grown in various mixtures of peat and sand.
217. VanElk, B.C.M. 1969. New experiments on conifer propagation. Gartenwelt. 69: 303-304. (Horticulture Abstracts. 40(1): 1731.) German.
Describes further experiments on the propagation by cuttings of ornamental species and cultivars (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, C. nootkatensis, Juniperus chinensis, J. squamata, J. virginiana, and Tsuga canadensis), with the aid of various combinations of soil heating, growth substances, and captan fungicide.
218. VanHaverbeke, D.F. 1984. Clonal and sexual variation in initial graft take of Juniperus virginiana L. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 4(3): 473-474. 13 refs.
Grafts of 44 clones revealed significant differences in initial take among clones and between ovulate and staminate clones. Consistent year-to-year successes of individual clones indicated the presence of clonal variability.
219. Wagner, G. 1967. Vegetation propagation techniques. Plant Propagator Society. 17: 113-138, 289-343. 71 refs.
Speeding production of hard-to-root conifers (e.g., Juniperus virginiana is side-grafted onto cuttings of an easy-to-root Juniper variety before these are placed in the rooting medium).
220. Webster, C.B.; Ratcliffe, G.T. 1942. A method of forcing quick germination of Juniperus virginiana L. seed. Journal of Forestry. 40: 268.
Seeds collected in late November were depulped and placed in dry storage until early February when they were treated as follows: Soaked 20 minutes in a lukewarm sodium (soda) lye solution, 3 tablespoons to 1 gallon of water; washed in fresh running water for 1 hour; soaked in fresh water for 8 hours; stratified in sand from February 4 to March 29. Seedlings averaged over 2 inches high by June 11.
221. Westervelt, D.D.; Keen, R.A. 1960. Cutting grafts of Junipers II: Stionic effects. Horticultural Science. 76: 637-643. 3 refs.
Comparisons were made of grafts, using as root stock seedlings of Juniperus virginiana, and also unrooted cuttings of J. horizontalis var. plumosa (Andorra Juniper) and J. chinensis (Hetz Juniper). The scions used were two clones of J. virginiana var. Canaert and Nevins Blue. The grafts were made on three dates in the first week of February and also on February 17 and on March 3. The grafted plants were planted out on May 30. Time of grafting had an effect on success of grafting and on height growth during the second season, but not in field survival or height growth in the field during the first season. It is important that the cuttings should be taken late enough in winter to root readily, but early enough to allow the grafts to become established before transplanting. The kind of scion used did not affect the success of the grafting operation, the rooting of the cuttings, or the field survival of the juniper grafts. The Nevins Blue grafts had a greater height growth than the Canaert Juniper on all stocks in the first growing season, and on the Andorra Juniper in the second season. The kind of root stock used had no effect on the success of the graft or upon rooting, but both field survival and height growth were greater in plants on J. virginiana rooted stock. The two groups of grafts on cuttings showed no differences during the first growing season, though significant differences between all the different combinations used appeared during the second. There was no established interaction between time of grafting, type of root stock, or scion. It seems that cutting grafts can be used to produce commercial stock, but final recommendations must await further experiments.
222. Wooten, T.E.; Helms, R.S. 1981. Paper mulches for vegetation control in Christmas tree plantations. For. Bull. 23. Clemson, SC: Clemson University, Department of Forestry. 7 p.
One-year-old seedlings of (a) eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) and (b) eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) were planted in an abandoned field in South Carolina in February 1979, and mulched with paper sheets 30X30 inches and 0.08 or 0.04 inches thick made of half newsprint and half corrugating medium and anchored with two pegs, or black polythene sheets 30X30X0.04 inches pegged at the corners. Control plots were mown as necessary. Soil moisture content showed no difference between treatments, probably because of the relatively wet summer. Mulching had little effect on the height growth of (a) measured in October 1979, but significantly improved that of (b) with no significant difference between mulch types. Mulching slightly reduced survival of (a) but had little effect on that of (b). Polythene-mulched plots had the lowest survival rate for both species. Pegging of paper mulch sheets appeared to be unnecessary.
223. Wright, R.D.; Hinesley, L.E. 1991. Growth of containerized eastern redcedar amended with dolomitic limestone and micronutrients. Horticultural Science. 26(2): 143-145. 17 refs.
One-year-old nursery transplants of Juniperus virginiana were planted on 29 November 1988 in 20-liter pots containing a 5:1 mixture of aged pine bark and sand amended with 3 kg triple superphosphate and 1.5 kg gypsum/m3 and factorial combinations of 0 and 3 kg ground dolomitic limestone and 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg Micromax micronutrients/m3. Pots were placed outdoors on gravel beds with overhead irrigation and topdressed with 30 g Osmocote (18:2.8:10) on 4 April and 20 May. Foliage samples were collected on 16 May, 25 July, and 3 October for chemical analysis. The nutrient status of the growing medium was also monitored on these dates. The experiment was terminated in early November. Adding trace elements to the growing medium reduced shoot growth, especially in the absence of limestone, and root growth was greatest when neither limestone nor trace elements were added. It was suggested that the inhibitory effect of trace elements on growth could be due to trace element toxicities at the low pH of the growing medium without dolomitic limestone (pH <4.0), but this was not confirmed by foliar or growing medium analysis.
224. Wycoff, H.B. 1961. Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) seeding practices. Tree Planters Notes. 47: 3-4.
At the Mason State Tree Nursery, Topeka, Illinois, standard practice is to drill clean dry seed from refrigerated storage during the first half of September. The seed is stored at 34o F for several years. Early sowing (before fresh seed is available) secures a period of warm "stratification" in the soil followed by a period of cold.
225. Wycoff, H.B. 1964. Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) seed extraction. Tree Planters Notes. 66: 14-15. 1 ref.
Describes the use of small portable electric powered concrete mixers for extracting seeds from the berries of J. virginiana.
226. Zheronkina, T.A. 1971. Growing Junipers from unripe seeds. Byulleten Glavnogo Botanicheskogo Sada. 78: 57-62. 4 refs.
Berries of Juniperus communis and J. virginiana were collected (in Alma-Ata) at intervals between
June or July and October, and the seeds were extracted and sown. For J. communis, results were
best (90 percent germination) with seeds collected in early August, i.e., from berries that were yellow
with a brown tinge. For J. virginiana, results were best (41 percent germination) with seeds collected
at the end of September or early October, i.e., when 70-80 percent of the berries on the south side of
the crown were black.
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