An Annotated Bibliography of Eastern Redcedar


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286. Barrows, E.M. 1974. Some factors affecting population size of the bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Environmental Entomology. 3(6): 929-932. 10 refs.

Some factors that affect the size of the population of Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haw.) were studied in Kansas by inspection of larvae cases collected from the field in winter. It was found that the average fecundity, frequency of reproductive females, percentage of females, parasitism, and predation varied significantly among samples from different plants and among samples from trees of Juniperus virginiana, all in the same grove. Mortality from unknown causes was significantly dependent on plant species. The frequency of reproductive females was density-dependent in populations feeding on J. virginiana. Groups of bagworms might escape parasites and other causes of mortality by colonizing fresh plants. Females that fed on Acer palmatum atropurpureum did not reproduce. If a 1:1 sex ratio can be assumed to occur at birth, males, on the average, suffered higher mortality than females.

287. Bishop, E.J.; Helms, T.J.; Ludwig, K.A. 1973. Control of bagworm with Bacillus thuringiensis. Journal of Econonmic Entomology. 66(3): 675-676. 3 refs.

Sprays of Biotrol XK (a wettable-powder formulation of spores and crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki containing 3.4 X 109 International Units/lb and at least 12 X 109 viable spores/g formulation) gave effective control of larvae of Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haw.) on eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) in plantings within the city of Lincoln, Nebraska, in 1972. Treatment at all rates (0.5-4 lb/100 US gal water) during June and August significantly reduced Psychid populations; treatment at all rates except 0.5 lb during June and early July gave nearly 100 percent control, while treatment at 4 and 2 lb during late July gave significantly better control than lower rates. Although the presence of pupae in samples affected the results, populations were significantly reduced during August and September.

288. Cox, D.L.; Potter, D.A. 1986. Aerial dispersal behavior of larval bagworms, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Lepidoptera:Psychidae). Canadian Entomologist. 118(6): 525-536. 19 refs.

Seasonal and daily patterns of ballooning, and behavioral processes involved in aerial dispersal, were studied in larvae of Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (a polyphagous pest of forests and ornamental trees and shrubs) on a cultivar of Juniperus virginiana in Kentucky in 1983. The aerial dispersal period began in mid-May and lasted about a month. About 75 percent of dispersing larvae ballooned after making a bag. Settling velocities were determined for larvae with and without bags and trailing various lengths of silk; a model was then developed that predicts dispersal distance for a particular wind speed and departure height. Most aerial dispersal is probably short-range. The bag reduced potential dispersal distance, but larvae with bags survived for about 2 days longer than those without bags when exposed to abiotic factors off a host-plant. Larvae without bags ballooned mostly in the morning, whereas 80 percent of the larvae dispersing with a bag ballooned in the afternoon. These patterns may be related to the diel periodicity of emergence of newly hatched larvae from old female bags, and the subsequent behavior of first-instar larvae before dispersal. A large proportion of each cohort emigrated regardless of host condition.

289. Cox, D.L.; Potter, D.A. 1988. Within-crown distributions of male and female bagworm (Lepidoptera:Psychidae) pupae on juniper as affected by host defoliation. Canadian Entomologist. 120(6): 559-567. 18 refs.

The within-crown distributions of male and female pupae of the sesiid Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis were examined on Juniperus virginiana in Kentucky, as a function of prior defoliation. Differential stratification of the sexes occurred irrespective of degree of defoliation and despite the fact that competition was apparently greatest at the top of moderately and severely defoliated trees. There was no relationship between height of pupation and risk of parasitism for either sex. Female larvae were four times as likely as males to abandon a low-lying host, upon which they had fed, and to ascend the trunks of nearby trees before pupating. It is suggested that enhancement of larval dispersal by females is the most plausible explanation for the stratified distribution of pupae within trees.

290. Cox, D.L.; Potter, D.A. 1990. Aerial dispersal behavior of the bagworm. Journal of Arboriculture. 16(9): 242-243. 2 refs.

Results of studies into larval behavior, seasonal dispersal patterns, and the relations between host plant and dispersal are briefly reported following observations made in Kentucky, USA, on the bagworm (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis), which defoliates juniper (Juniperus virginiana) as well as other woody plant species. Larvae, drifting downwind, were capable of being dispersed 150 to 245 feet, and could survive 1.5 to 3.5 days off a host plant. Bagworm larval dispersal in Kentucky took place in mid-May to mid-June, and is the principal source of new infestations; larvae dispersed regardless of host plant condition. The implications of these results for management of bagworm infestations are noted.

291. Cronin, J.T. 1989. Inverse density-dependent parasitism of the bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Lepidoptera:Psychidae). Environmental Entomology. 18(3): 403-407. 36 refs.

Parasitism of Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis by the Ichneumonid Itoplectis conquisitor was studied on eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) in Virginia during 1986. Parasitoid foraging behavior indicated that two spatial scales were appropriate: individual trees and small patches of trees. Parasitoids showed a highly significant preference for male (61 percent parasitism) to female hosts (10 percent), and percentage parasitism by I. conquisitor declined significantly as the density of female psychids on trees increased. Although mathematically possible, this inverse density-dependent response was considered to be too vague to promote the stability of this system. Other factors that may be involved in the regulation of populations of T. ephemeraeformis are discussed.

292. Cronin, J.T.; Gill, D.E. 1989. The influence of host distribution, sex, and size on the level of parasitism by Itoplectis conquisitor (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Ecological Entomology. 14(2): 163-173. 48 refs.

Parasitism of the sesiid Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis on redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) was studied in Virginia during 1986. Fifteen parasitoids, including five hyperparasitoids, attacked the pupal stage of the sesiid. Itoplectis conquisitor accounted for 58 percent of the parasitised pupae. Parasitism by this species was inversely related to host size, but independent of host distribution within a tree. Male hosts were parasitised more frequently than females, probably because of their relative sizes. The ovipositor length of I. conquisitor was insufficient to penetrate large hosts (greater than 57 mm) and, as host size increased, the proportion of the parasitoid population capable of penetrating the pupa declined abruptly. It is suggested that mechanical difficulties with oviposition, and perhaps the defensive capabilities of larger hosts, are responsible for the relationship between host size and percentage parasitism.

293. Gross, S.W.; Fritz, R.S. 1982. Differential stratification, movement and parasitism of sexes of the bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis, on redcedar Juniperus virginiana, Itoplectis conquistador, natural control, Virginia. Ecological Entomology. 7(2): 149-154.

294. Haseman, L. 1912. The evergreen bagworm. Bull. 104. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station: 309-330.

295. Jones, F.M.; Parks, H.B. 1928. The bagworms of Texas. Bull. 382. College Station, TX: Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. 36 p.

296. Lagoy, P.K.; Barrows, E.M. 1989. Larval-sex and host-species effects on location of attachment sites of last-instar bagworms, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Lepidoptera:Psychidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 91(3): 468-472. 19 refs.

Case attachment behavior of final-instar larvae of Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis on redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), white pine (Pinus strobus), and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) was studied in the field in Virginia during September-October 1983 and 1984. On the deciduous R. pseudoacacia, males most frequently attached their cases to leaves, while females tended to attach their cases to branches. On P. strobus, both sexes tended to attach their cases to branches rather than leaves. The diameters of branches used as case-attachment substrates were significantly related to sex and tree species.

297. Rudd, B.; Ashdown, D.; Sanders, D.P. 1985. Selected effects of sublethal dosages of three insecticides on the bagworm. Journal of Arboriculture. 11(7): 207-209. 8 refs.

Juniperus virginiana trees in Texas were sprayed with sublethal doses of diazinon (1/8th recommended dose), Sevin (carbaryl - at 1/16th recommended dose), toxaphene [camphechlor] (1/16th recommended dose), or left untreated. After 8 hours, test populations of 100 bagworm larvae (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis), 35 days old, were placed on the test trees and confined in bags. In the autumn all bags were removed and contents examined. Female pupae were dissected for egg counts and measurement. Treatments did not significantly affect survival, egg number or viability, or emergence patterns. Populations on trees treated with diazinon produced significantly greater numbers of pupae. Camphechlor treatment resulted in significantly larger eggs than controls, and carbaryl treatment produced significantly smaller eggs.

298. Smith, M.P.; Barrows, E.M. 1991. Effects of larval case size and host plant species on case internal temperature in the bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haworth) (Lepidoptera:Psychidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 93(4): 834-838.

299. Stannard, L.J., Jr. 1964. Secondary bagworm injury. Journal of Economic Entomology. 57(1): 176. 2 refs.

Describes damage to Juniperus virginiana by winds breaking off distal twigs weakened by constrictions made by the supporting bands of the bagworms, 95 percent of which had been killed in the previous year by carbaryl treatment. Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis is one species responsible.

300. Ward, K.E.; Ramaswamy, S.B.; Nebeker, T.E. 1990. Feeding preferences and their modification in early and late instar larvae of the bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Lepidoptera:Psychidae). Journal of Insect Behavior. 3(6): 785-795.

301. Ward, K.E.; Ramaswamy, S.B.; Nebeker, T.E. 1990. Influence of host type and host switching on nutritional performance of the bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis Haworth (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Tech. Bull. 170. Starkville, MS: Mississippi State University, Mississippi Agricultural Forest Experiment Station: 13-20.

302. Ward, K.E.; Ramaswamy, S.B.; Nebeker, T.E. 1991. Nutritional performance of first and penultimate-final instar bagworm larvae on two unrelated hosts as influenced by host of origin. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 60(1): 71-81. 21 refs.

Nutritional performance of early- and late-instar larvae of Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis was investigated as a function of origin and type of food plant, using two taxonomically distant wild plants, Salix nigra and Juniperus virginiana. First-instar growth and survival were higher on S. nigra; overall performance was similar on the two tree species in penultimate-final instars. There was no evidence for differentiation associated with food plant with respect to nutritional performance. There were, however, significant genotype X environment interactions for several characters studied, suggesting that the potential for food plant-associated differentiation exists.

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303. Berg, A. 1940. A rust-resistant red cedar. Phytopathology. 30: 876-878.

Trees selected in an eastern (Juniperus virginiana) grove for susceptibility and resistance to Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae Schw., and left in position for 16 years, maintained these characters throughout the period. Scions were taken from the most promising trees and propagated by grafting, being transferred when well established to an apple orchard where maximum rust infection occurred practically every year. After 4 years of such exposure, the scions from one tree show consistently high resistance to the fungus, and it may be assumed that under natural conditions this tree would never become severely infected with the rust prevalent in this region. Since, however, there is a possibility that the tree might not be resistant to all strains of the fungus, stock is now being propagated for distribution and testing in other regions.

304. Brown, H.I.; Orcutt, D.M.; Drake, C.R. 1977. Lipid composition of hydrated and unhydrated telial structures of Gymnosporangium clavipes and Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae as compared to that of the host, Juniperus virginiana. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society. 4: 214.

305. Cafley, J.D.; Huntly, J.H. 1961. Control of the cedar-apple rust on redcedar. Bi-monthly Progress Report of the Forest Entomological Pathology Branch, Department of Forestry, Canada. 17(2): 1.

Experiments indicate that Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae on ornamental trees of Juniperus virginiana can be controlled by a single application of Acti-dione spray at a concentration of 100 p.p.m. in water with detergent soap as an emulsifier.

306. Canada. 1942. Twenty-first annual report of the Canadian plant disease survey 1941. Ottawa, CA: Department of Agriculture, Division of Botanical Plant Pathology. 102 p.

Reports fungi that cause diseases on forest trees, including Juniperus-Gymnosporangium spp. on J. virginiana; G. clavipes on J. communis.

307. Crowell, I.H. 1935. The cedar apple rust and its control. Eleventh Natural Shade Tree Conference Proceedings: 80-83.

308. Cutter, V.M. 1959. Studies on the isolation and growth of plant rusts in host tissue cultures and upon synthetic media. I. Gymnosporangium. Mycologia. 51(2): 248-295. 49 refs.

Tissue and synthetic cultures were successfully established from the telial galls of G. juniperi-virginianae produced on Juniperus virginiana. After several years, all strains isolated proved capable of reinfecting their alternate hosts (Crataegus spp.), and some were also capable of infecting J. virginiana.

309. Dodge, B.O. 1931. A destructive red-cedar rust disease. Journal of the New York Botanical Garden. 32: 101-108.

310. Hahn, G.G. 1920. Phomopsis juniperovora, a new species causing blight of nursery cedars. Phytopathology. 10: 249-253.

311. Hahn, G.G. 1926. Phomopsis juniperovora and closely related strains on conifers. Phytopathology. 16: 899-914.

312. Hahn, G.G. 1930. Life-history studies of the species of Phomopsis occurring on conifers. British Mycology Society Transactions. 15: 32-93.

313. Hahn, G.G. 1947. Berg's rust-resistant red cedar susceptible to Phomopsis juniperovora in greenhouse tests. Phytopathology. 37: 530-531.

314. Hahn, G.G.; Hartley, C.; Pierce, R.G. 1917. A nursery blight of cedars. Journal of Agricultural Research. 10: 533-539.

315. Hansborough, J.R. 1952. Cedar-apple rust. In: Important tree pests of the northeast. Concord, NH: Society of American Foresters, New England Section: 89-99.

316. Hartley, C. 1910. Fomes annosus and two species of Gymnosporangium on Juniperus virginiana. Science. 31: 639.

317. Hartley, C. 1913. Bark rusts of Juniperus virginiana. Phytopathology. 8: 249.

318. Hartley, C. 1913. The blights of coniferous nursery stock. Bull. 44. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 21 p.

319. Heald, F.D. 1909. The life history of the cedar rust fungus. Ann. Rep. 22. Lincoln, NE: Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station: 105-113.

320. Laundon, G. 1977. Gymnosporangium globosum (American hawthorn rust, also on apple, pear, Sorbus, Juniperus virginiana). Mycology Institute. 55(546): 1.

321. Laundon, G. 1977. Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae (American apple rust, Juniperus virginiana). Mycology Institute. 55(547): 2.

322. Livingston, J.E. 1946. Cedar apple rust. Ext. Circ. 1806. Lincoln, NE: Nebraska Agriculture College. 4 p.

323. Long, W.H. 1945. Notes of four eastern species of Gymnosporangium. Journal of the Washington Academy of Science. 35(6): 182-188.

Reports investigations conducted by the author in the District of Columbia and vicinity in 1912 and 1913 on the local occurrence of Gymnosporangium clavipes Cke. & Pk., G. nidus-avis Thaxt., G. effusum Kem., and G. juniperi-virginianae Sch.; on the lesions produced by them on eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.); and on inoculations with G. effusum.

324. Marshall, R.P. 1941. Control of cedar-apple rust on redcedar. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. 34: 85-118. Ukrainian.

Although the most effective way of eradicating cedar-apple rust (Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae) is by the complete removal of one or other of the alternate hosts (eastern redcedar and apple), house owners and the commercial tree experts who serve such owners have demanded control methods that will permit the growing of susceptible species of both hosts in close proximity. In order to meet this demand, experiments with fungicides for the control of the disease were undertaken at Stamford, Connecticut, during the period 1930-1940 inclusive. Results indicate that approximately 80 percent control may be obtained through a single application of a modified Bordeaux spray (Bordeaux No. 180) applied in early spring. Where a higher degree of control is demanded for the sake of appearance, it can be obtained by additional applications of the same spray or by hand-picking any galls that appear after spraying. Bordeaux No. 180 has a high copper/lime ratio and contains arsenites. It is non-injurious to eastern redcedar and does not make the trees unsightly.

325. Miller, P.R. 1939. Pathogenicity, symptoms, and the causative fungi of three apple rusts compared. Phytopathology. 29: 801-811.

Three distinct rusts affect apples in the United States: Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae, G. globosum, and G. clavipes. Comparative symptomatology of the three diseases and the morphological characters of their causative fungi are tabulated.

326. Mims, C.W. 1981. Ultrastructure of teliospore germination and basidiospore formation in the rust fungus Gymnosporangium clavipes (on Juniperus virginiana). Canadian Journal of Botany. 59(6): 1041-1049. 23 refs.

327. Mims, C.W.; Glidewell, D.C. 1978. Some ultrastructural observations on the host (Juniperus virginiana)-pathogen relationship within the telial gall of the rust fungus Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae. Botanical Gazette. 139(1): 11-17.

328. Neely, D. 1983. Chemical control of cedar-apple and cedar-hawthorn rusts. Journal of Arboriculture. 9(3): 85-87. 3 refs.

Rust caused by Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae attacking ornamental crabapple (Malus spp.) or hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) in the U.S.A., is usually only a problem where native redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) or other susceptible junipers are found within 1 mile. Seven fungicides were applied in April or May of 1980, 1981, or 1982 to infected M. ioensis and C. mollis that were growing within 100 feet of J. virginiana in the Illinois Natural History Survey arboretum. Disease severity was recorded in late June or early July using a leaf lesion index. Bayleton, Baycor (biteranol), and Vangard gave effective control, but Daconil (chlorothalonil), Manzate (maneb), Difolatan (captafol), and captan were only partially effective.

329. Palmiter, D.H. 1952. Three rust diseases of apples and fungicide treatments for their control. Bull. 756. Albany, NY: New York Agricultural Experiment Station: 1-26.

330. Pammel, L. H. 1905. Cedar apple fungi and apple rust in Iowa. Ag. Mechan. Arts 84. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Agricultural Experiment Station. 36 p.

331. Pearson, R.C.; Aldwinckle, H.S.; Seem, R.C. 1977. Teliospore germination and basidiospore formation in Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae: a regression model of temperature and time effects. Canadian Journal of Botany. 55(22): 2832-2837.

332. Pearson, R.C.; Seem, R.C.; Meyer, F.W. 1976. Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae basidiospore liberation under field conditions. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society. 3: 283.

Branches of redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) bearing galls of cedar/apple rust (G. juniperi-virginianae) were placed in water around a spore trap, and hourly observations were made of relative humidity, leaf wetness, temperature, rainfall, and spore concentration, from 23 April to 15 June, 1975. Spore release was initiated by rainfall and continued as long as relative humidity was near 100 percent. On most occasions, relative humidity and leaf wetness correlated with log 10 spore catch, accounting for nearly 40 percent of the variation, but sometimes spores were released after rain regardless of these factors.

333. Pearson, R.C.; Seem, R.C.; Meyer, F.W. 1980. Environmental factors influencing the discharge of basidiospores of Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae. Phytopathology. 70(3): 262-266. 17 refs.

Discharge of basidiospores of G. juniperi-virginianae (cedar apple rust of apple) was studied in the field for three growing seasons. Cut branches of Juniperus virginiana bearing rust galls were arranged around a spore trap. Discharge usually began within a few hours of the start of rain; continued throughout the rain period; and ceased when rain ended, leaves dried, and relative humidity dropped below 85 percent. The duration of the spore release period was most highly correlated with hours of relative humidity more than or equal to 85 percent. Generally, environmental parameters had higher correlation coefficients with the duration of spore discharge than with spore numbers. Delays in discharge following the start of rainfall were not significantly correlated with any of the parameters. Multiple regression equations were developed to predict the amount and duration of spore discharge. On several occasions after a rain-induced discharge, basidiospore release resumed 12-24 hours later in the absence of rain or leaf wetness. This phenomenon was highly correlated with hours of relative humidity more than or equal to 85 percent.

334. Smits, B.L.; Peterson, W.J. 1942. Carotenoids of telial galls of Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae, Lk. Science. 96: 210-211.

In an investigation of the pigments of the telial galls of the common rust fungus Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae Lk beta- and gamma-carotenes were shown to be the only carotenoids present, with the gamma-isomer predominating. The identification of gamma-carotene was based on its more characteristic properties, behavior on an adsorbent, and its absorption spectra. Neither free nor esterified xanthophylls were present, and only traces of chlorophyll. The leaves of the Juniper (Juniperus virginiana), besides containing chlorophyll, showed the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma-carotene.

335. Strong, F.C. 1948. Redcedar-apple and hawthorn rust disease control by spraying redcedars in the spring. Quarterly Bulletin of the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station. 30(3): 283-288. 3 refs.

The use of Bordeaux 180 as a spray to control Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae and G. globosum on redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) and its alternate hosts (species of Hawthorn and apple) was very successful and caused no injury to foliage.

336. Strong, F.C.; Cation, D. 1940. Control of cedar rust with sodium dinitrocresylate. Phytopathology. 30: 983.

Single sprayings with sodium dinitrocresylate (Elgetol), applied on 8 May to one group of host plants and on 16 May to another, inhibited telial column extension and teliospore germination from rust galls of Gymnosporangium globosum and G. juniperi-virginianae on Juniperus virginiana, and of G. clavipes and G. clavariaeforme on J. communis. A 1 percent solution of Elgetol regular was the most effective. Exceptionally thorough spraying was necessary for positive results. No foliage injury was later apparent on J. virginiana, and only a trace of injury was apparent on some of the badly infected J. communis.

337. Strong, F.C.; Klomparens, W. 1955. The control of redcedar apple and hawthorn rusts with Acti-dione. Plant Disease Reporter. 39(7): 569.

Prevention of germination of the teliospores and resultant sporidia production of Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae was achieved by a single application of cycloheximide (Actidione) at 100 p.p.m. to galls on Juniperus virginiana in the spring. Further tests with lower concentrations in summer grade fuel oil (50 p.p.m. or 25 p.p.m. in 0.5 percent oil, applied in April), proved to be equally effective. No injury to foliage was observed.

338. Von Schrenk, H. 1900. Two diseases of red cedar, caused by Polyporus juniperinus N. sp. and Polyporus carnes Nees. Bull. 21. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 29 p.

339. Waite, M.B. 1927. Apple trees attacked by cedar rust. Yearbook. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture: 145-151.

340. Weimer, J.L. 1917. The origin and development of the galls produced by two cedar rust fungi. American Journal of Botany. 4: 241-251.

Galls produced by Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae and G. globosum on Juniperus virginiana originate as modified leaves. The vascular systems of the galls are composed of the enlarged and modified leaf-trace bundles.

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341. Butin, H.; Paetzholdt, M. 1974. Injuries to Juniperus virginiana by Phomopsis juniperovora. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes. 26(3): 36-39. 12 refs. German.

Reports this disease for the first time in Germany and describes attacks in Holstein nurseries. Infection tests showed a very high pathogenicity, even to intact shoots, especially in infections initiated by spores.

342. Caroselli, N.E. 1957. Juniper blight and progress on its control. Plant Disease Reporter. 41: 216-218.

Juniper blight, caused by the fungus Phomopsis juniperovora Hahn, is a serious disease of 1- and 2-year-old trees. Treatment by several chemicals is effective.

343. Dai, Y.S. 1986. A nursery blight of Sabina (Juniperus) virginiana. Journal of Nanjing Institute of Forestry. 2: 37-46. 7 refs. Chinese.

A fungus producing pycnidia on dead shoots and leaves of seedlings in nurseries in Jiangsu, China, was identified as Phomopsis juniperovora and described. Seedlings of S. chinensis var. Juniperus chinensis cv. pyramidalis Fokienia hodginsii, Cupressus funebris, and C. gigantea were infected as well as J. virginiana.

344. Davis, W.C.; Latham, D.H. 1939. Cedar blight on wildling and forest tree nursery stock. Phytopathology. 29: 991-992.

Considerable loss of nursery stock of Juniperus virginiana in the central and eastern United States is caused by Phomopsis juniperovora. This fungus was observed on wildling redcedar seedlings in natural stands in Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee during 1937 and 1938, and was isolated from diseased redcedar nursery stock in 1938. While applications of ammonium sulphate and 4-10-4 commercial fertilizer stimulated the early growth of transplants, by the end of the growing season the loss of transplants due to cedar blight was nearly twice as great on fertilized as on unfertilized plots. Spraying with Bordeaux and roguing to produce blight-free stock cost 40 cents per 1,000 seedlings.

345. Fiedler, D.J.; Otta, J.D. 1977. Control of Phomopsis blight of eastern redcedar with benomyl. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society. 4: 126.

Phomopsis blight (P. juniperovora) in potted seedlings of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) in the greenhouse was significantly controlled by foliar sprays of benomyl (a.i. 600 p.p.m.) applied three times before and three times after inoculation, and also by drenches of benomyl (40-60 mg/liter pot); the minimum concentration of benomyl necessary to control the disease was 3 mu g/g plant tissue. In nursery-grown 2+0 plants, some control (significantly fewer trees with pycnidia and percent pycnidia with spores) was achieved with 2-weekly (1.1 kg/ha), monthly (2.8 kg/ha), or 6-weekly (5.6 kg/ha) applications of benomyl despite the low concentration (less than 3 mu g/g) in the plants.

346. Hahn, G.G. 1940. Distribution and hosts of cedar blight in the United States. Reports of cedar blight in 1939. Plant Disease Reporter. 24(3): 52-58.

Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) blight, caused by Phomopsis juniperovora, is now known to occur in 25 States of the American Union and in the District of Columbia. New hosts include J. japonica, J. chinensis var. mas, J. horizontalis var. douglasii, and J. ashei; while J. virginiana var. pyramidiformis hilli has given evidence of resistance in recent tests. During 1939 the blight was destructive in Minnesota and Wisconsin, but in the western states--Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas--it has been of little importance in recent years. In Nebraska and Kansas, where it was previously virulent, the succession of dry seasons may have contributed to the lack of serious infection.

347. Hahn, G.G. 1941. Reports of cedar blight in 1940 and notes on its previous occurrence in nurseries. Plant Disease Reporter. 25: 186-190.

In recent years, Phomopsis juniperovora has become a difficult problem in nurseries of the Mississippi Valley States where cedars are propagated, and the disease is regarded as particularly serious in this area since Juniperus virginiana is locally popular for windbreak plantings. In two nurseries in Iowa and Missouri, the disease was less active in July, 1940, than at any time in the previous 3 years, apparently owing to a very dry spring. Towards the end of July, however, an epidemic developed in two Iowa nurseries and became more severe than outbreaks in 1937 and 1938. In a 2 acre area planted with J. virginiana, all of 2,000 seedlings examined were infected. Spread became greatly reduced in the first week of September, when dry weather set in. Between 20 July and 1 September, the whole stock was rogued three or four times, with a total loss of about 30 percent. The disease was quiescent during the dry, cold spring, but became rampant when exceptionally wet, cool weather developed in July and August. In eastern Nebraska, infection was worse during 1940 than at any other time in recent years. At Fremont J. scopulorum was as badly infected as J. virginiana. In Minnesota and Wisconsin, infection was light. During the year the first authenticated record of the disease as a nursery problem in Oklahoma was received. In Texas nurseries, only one case appears to have occurred; this was in 1929, when the fungus was identified on J. chinensis seedlings introduced from Illinois. Infection in a nursery in Virginia and one in North Carolina was less serious than in the previous 2 years. Thin stands appeared to be a controlling factor, as in South Carolina, where the disease has not yet been recorded.

348. Hahn, G.G. 1943. Taxonomy, distribution and pathology of Phomopsis occulta and P. juniperovora. Mycologia. 35(1): 112-119.

In wound inoculation tests carried out during 1941 in an unheated greenhouse at the Marsh Botanical Garden, Yale University, monospore cultures of Phomopsis occulta failed to infect any of the 14 wildling eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) saplings inoculated, whereas inoculations with P. juniperovora were entirely successful in all seven saplings used. Saplings of a bluish-green color were girdled and killed, whereas those of a lighter and brighter green showed some resistance. P. occulta is stated to be widely distributed on conifers both in western Europe and throughout North America, while its perfect stage, Diaporthe conorum, though common in Europe, is very rare in the Western Hemisphere. In the course of the author's investigations in Great Britain from 1926 to 1929, fruiting bodies of D. conorum were obtained experimentally on twigs of Ulmus procera from monopycnidiospores of the fungus originally isolated from cultures of monoascospores from Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia). P. occulta is considered to be a secondary invader of cedars following some injury to the host plant, although some forms were found to be weakly parasitic on the coast form of Douglas fir. The pathogenic species, P. juniperovora, the Diaporthe stage of which is as yet unknown, is stated to be parasitic under natural conditions only on hosts of the Cupressaceae, a revised list of which is given. Under experimental conditions, saplings of the coast form of Douglas fir were found to be highly susceptible to this fungus, but nursery stocks of this host were never observed to be attacked. The fungus is stated to occur as a nursery parasite on hosts of the Cupressaceae family both in Europe and in the United States.

349. Hahn, G.G. 1949. Junipers previously reported blight resistant now proved susceptible to Phomopsis juniperovora. Plant Disease Reporter. 33(8): 328-330. 5 refs.

Reports inoculation tests on Juniperus virginiana var. hilli and two specimens of J. virginiana previously reported to show resistance to cedar blight. All three proved susceptible under experimental conditions.

350. Hodges, C.S.; Green, H.J. 1960. Survival in the plantation of eastern redcedar seedlings infected with Phomopsis juniperovora in the nursery. Phytopathology. 50(9): 639.

Survival rates of Juniperus virginiana seedlings that had 0, 1-10, 11-50, and more than 50 percent of their tops killed by the blight when planted out were 84, 23, 6, and 3 percent, respectively, after 2 years. In another trial, survival ranged from 81 to 15 percent after 1 year. Most of the originally infected, but few of the originally healthy, seedlings had new infections at the beginning of the second growing season. Viable conidia of P. juniperovora were found on material dead as long as 18 months.

351. Hodges, C.S.; Green, H.J. 1961. Survival in the plantation of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) seedlings infected with Phomopsis blight in the nursery. Plant Disease Reporter. 45(2): 134-136.

352. Otta, J.D. 1974. Benomyl and thiophanate methyl control Phomopsis blight of eastern redcedar in a nursery. Plant Disease Reporter. 58(5): 476-477. 8 refs.

Reports trials in which 2-year-old seedlings of Juniperus virginiana were treated with each of the two systemic fungicides and a phenylmercuric compound to control blight caused by Phomopsis juniperovora in a nursery in South Dakota. Benomyl (0.5 lb a.i./acre) and thiophanate methyl (0.7 lb a.i./acre) both gave satisfactory control, and none of the treatments were phytotoxic.

353. Otta, J.D. 1978. Alpha and beta spore occurrence in Phomopsis juniperovora (blight) pycnidia on Juniperus virginiana and in culture. Canadian Journal of Botany. 56(7): 727-728.

354. Otta, J.D.; Fiedler, D.J.; Lengkeek, V.H. 1980. Effect of benomyl on Phomopsis juniperovora infection of Juniperus virginiana. Phytopathology. 70(1): 46-50. 19 refs.

Presents results of a series of experiments. In vitro growth of P. juniperovora on agar was reduced by 0.1-0.25 mg/liter benomyl. Benomyl applied as a foliar spray to 2-year-old potted trees of J. virginiana in the greenhouse (suspension of 600 mg/liter weekly for 4 weeks), and to 3-year-old trees in a nursery in South Dakota (0.6 kg/ha a.i. in 190 liters water), significantly reduced severity of disease developing after inoculation. In the nursery trees (also sprayed with chlorothalonil, triphenyl tin hydroxide, and captafol, which were ineffective in preventing disease development), percent trees and amount of diseased tissue with pycnidia, and percent pycnidia with spores were significantly less than in untreated trees. Benomyl applied as a spray was not translocated to protected portions of the foliage, but when applied as a soil drench to 2-year-old potted trees in the greenhouse, it was translocated and protected against disease when the concentration in new growth exceeded 3 mu g/g. J. virginiana in the nursery was susceptible to infection by P. juniperovora throughout the growing season, but not after dormancy began in late August and September.

355. Pero, R.W. 1970. Juniper diffusates: their composition and effect on Phomopsis juniperovora spores. Dissertation Abstracts International, B. Science and Engineering. 31(1): 13.

356. Pero, R.W.; Howard, F.L. 1969. Activity of foliar diffusate from Juniperus virginiana on Phomopsis juniperovora spore germination. Phytopathology. 59(4): 402.

Aqueous diffusates from foliage of J. virginiana susceptible and resistant to P. juniperovora were all found to give active stimulation of spore germination and germ-tube elongation. Two biologically active components were isolated.

357. Pero, R.W.; Howard, F.L. 1970. Activity of Juniper diffusates on spores of Phomopsis juniperovora. Phytopathology. 60(3): 491-495. 17 refs.

358. Peterson, G.W. 1965. Field survival and growth of Phomopsis-blighted and non-blighted eastern redcedar planting stock. Plant Disease Reporter. 49(2): 121-123. 2 refs.

Tabulates and discusses the results of comparative trials in eastern Nebraska, confirming the results of previous tests in North Carolina, and indicating that blighted stock of Juniperus virginiana, even if only slightly damaged, should not be planted out.

359. Peterson, G.W. 1973. Infection of Juniperus virginiana and J. scopulorum by Phomopsis juniperovora. Phytopathology. 63(2): 246-251.

Young leaves of both J. spp. were highly susceptible to P. juniperovora, but no lesions developed on old leaves. Infection occurred at 12-32o C, with greater intensity at 24-28o C. Small, light colored lesions developed in 3-5 days. Disease was more severe when high (32o) post-inoculation temperatures prevailed. Infection took place in 7 hours at 100 percent relative humidity and 24o C. Pycnidia with viable spores were present 3 weeks after inoculation. The optimum temperature for germination, germ-tube development, and growth in culture was 24o C, exposure to -22o and +43o C did not prevent germination. Spores also germinated following hydration, desiccation, and the return to favorable conditions. Light had no effect on germination, growth, or infection.

360. Peterson, G.W. 1977. Control of juniper blight caused by Cercospora sequoiae var. juniperi (Juniperus virginiana, Juniperus scopulorum). American Nurseryman. 145(12): 13, 50-51.

361. Peterson, G.W. 1977. Epidemiology and control of a blight of Juniperus virginiana caused by Cercospora sequoiae var. juniperi. Phytopathology. 67(2): 234-238. 6 refs.

In eastern Nebraska, spores of C. sequoiae var. juniperi were trapped as early as late April, but dispersal was not abundant until late May or early June and it extended into October. Spores were dispersed only during rainy periods. There was no evidence of long-distance dispersal; no spores were collected in volumetric traps 2 m from infected trees. Germination of spores began within 6 hours and after 24 hours was more than 90 percent over the range 16-28o C. Germ tube growth was optimal at 24-26o C. First infection of spur leaves of J. virginiana occurred during the period 14-28 July in 1971 and 21 June-5 July in 1972. Symptoms on spur leaves were first observed on 8 August in 1971, 19 July in 1972, and 21 July in 1973. Only the previous year's spur leaves and both current and previous years' juvenile leaves became infected. Whip leaves, the characteristic foliage of extremities of long shoots on secondary and tertiary branches, were not infected. Results provide a sound basis for determining when protective fungicides should be applied.

362. Peterson, G.W. 1986. Resistance to Phomopsis juniperovora in geographic seed sources of Juniperus virginiana. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-50. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 65-69.

363. Peterson, G.W.; Nuland, D.; Weihing, J.L. 1960. Tests of four fungicides for control of cedar blight. Plant Disease Reporter. 44(9): 744-746. 2 refs.

Treatments tested on Juniperus virginiana seedlings attacked by Phomopsis juniperovora in an eastern Nebraska nursery were: (1) Puratized Agricultural Spray at 1 1/2 pints/55 gal water; (2) Kromad (5 percent Cd sebacate; 5 percent K chromate; 1 percent malachite green; 0.5 percent auramine; 16 percent thiram) at 0.2 lb/10 gal water; (3) Dodine (Cyprex 65-W) (65 percent NU-dodecylguanidine acetate) at (a) 0.2 lb/10 gal water and (b) 0.1 lb/10 gal water; (4) Acti-dione RZ (1.3 percent cycloheximide (beta[2 -(3,5 - di methyl - 2 - oxocyclohexyl)- 2 - hydroxyethyl]-glutarimide); 75 percent pentachloronitrobenzene) at (a) 1.6 oz/10 gal water and (b) 0.11 oz/10 gal water. (1) Gave very good control on 1 + 0 and 2 + 0 seedlings. Blight incidence in (2) was lower than in controls but much higher than in (1). (4a), (4b), and (3a) proved toxic to the plants. (3b) was not toxic but less effective than (1) and (2). Blight incidence in the 3 + 0 seedlings was too slight to give any significant results.

364. Peterson, G.W.; Otta, J.D. 1979. Controlling Phomopsis blight of junipers. American Nurseryman. 149(5): 15, 75-82. 9 refs.

The fungus Phomopsis juniperovora (juniperivora) attacks Juniperus virginiana and J. scopulorum as seedlings in nursery beds. The life cycle and characteristics of the fungus are reported, and symptoms of infection in juniper are described and distinguished from attack by the lesser cornstalk borer (Kabatina juniperi) and blight caused by Cercospora sequoiae. Control of Phomopsis can be achieved by several simultaneous actions: weekly fungicide (mercury compounds, benomyl) application, weekly roguing of all seedlings with dying foliage, and proper location of seedling beds (away from older stands, on well drained sites). As the fungus is most likely to infect seedlings in moist conditions, irrigation and shading should be planned so that leaves do not remain wet for long periods. After transplanting, fungicide application to the early and late flushes of growth is a practical means of retaining control. The blight rarely kills older trees.

365. Peterson, G.W.; Sumner, D.R.; Norman, C. 1965. Control of Phomopsis blight of eastern redcedar seedlings. Plant Disease Reporter. 49(6): 529-531. 3 refs.

Of five treatments tested on Juniperus virginiana seedlings attacked by Phomopsis juniperovora in an eastern Nebraska nursery, only Puratized Agricultural Spray, (1, 1 1/2, or 2 pints/100 gal water), gave good control at the rates used. Control was not improved by addition of two spreader-stickers.

366. Scheld, H.W., Jr.; Kelman, A. 1963. Influence of environmental factors on Phomopsis juniperovora. Plant Disease Reporter. 47(10): 932-935. 11 refs.

In cultures, optimum mycelial growth occurred at 26o C on a solid medium and at 28o C in a liquid medium. Optimum temperature for germination of conidia was 20o C. Light was essential to obtain fertile pycnidia. Maximum infection developed within the range of temperatures optimum for spore germination and mycelial growth. In overwintering studies in the field, both mycelium and conidia in pycnidia survived the winter on live, infected seedlings of Juniperus virginiana; conidia in pycnidia also survived the winter on surface debris. Neither spores nor mycelium remained viable throughout the winter in tissues of seedlings buried in the soil.

367. Slagg, C.M.; Wright, E. 1943. Control of cedar blight in seedbeds. American Nurseryman. 78(7): 22-25.

All species of Juniperus are susceptible to attack by the cedar blight fungus (Phomopsis juniperovora), but the disease is usually most severe on eastern redcedar (J. virginiana), especially in the seedbed stage. Experiments carried out during an epidemic of the blight in 1941 revealed that under Kansas conditions thinly sown seedbeds are more severely attacked than thickly sown beds; and in a preliminary experiment, it was observed that considerably less disease occurred in a section of a seedbed watered by ditch irrigation than in an adjacent section watered by an overhead sprinkler. All the standard fungicides tested reduced the amount of infection, but Special Semesan gave the greatest degree of control. Lime-sulphur, wettable sulphur, and arsenic compounds all produced more or less serious burning of foliage, while the soils of plots treated with bordeaux mixture became strongly alkaline. It is believed that weekly spraying between June 1 and October 1 will furnish adequate protection to young seedlings. Sanitary measures, in particular the removal of blighted seedlings, will increase control. A combination of roguing and spraying reduced seedling loss from blight to 1.44 percent with bordeaux mixture, 1.63 percent with Cuprocide, and 0.55 percent with Special Semesan.

368. Wheeler, M.M.; Wheeler, D.M.S.; Peterson, G.W. 1975. Anthraquinone pigments from the phytopathogen Phomopsis juniperovora Hahn. Phytochemistry. 14(1): 288-289.

369. Wright, E.; Slagg, C.M. 1942. Some tentative conclusions resulting from plot analyses of Phomopsis-blighted Juniper seedlings in Great Plains nurseries during 1941. Phytopathology. 32: 19.

One-year-old seedlings of Juniperus virginiana from Kansas seed proved no more resistant to infection by Phomopsis juniperovora than those from Nebraska seed. J. scopulorum, previously not sprayed because it was considered highly resistant, was so severely infected that spraying will be necessary in the future. Infection of seedlings generally began at the edge of the seedbeds, later working inwards, and appeared to be directly associated with water splashing. Seedlings watered by overhead irrigation were more severely attacked than those watered by ditch irrigation; dense stands, presumably because they reduce splashing, tended to retard rather than to increase the percentage of infection. Roguing of diseased plants was not significantly beneficial, except where infection was comparatively light. Of various sprays used, commercial bordeaux (5-5-50) gave most promise for control.

Return to List of Pests

Other Pests

370. Appleby, J.E.; Neiswander, R.B. 1965. Oligotrophus apicis sp. N., a midge injurious to junipers; with key to species of Oligotrophus found in the United States. Ohio Journal of Science. 65: 166-175.

371. Baxter, D.V. 1939. Some resupinate polypores from the region of the Great Lakes. XI. Michigan Academy of Science. 25: 145-170.

Gives descriptions of 10 polypores, including Poria ferox n. sp. from dead wood of Juniperus monosperma and J. virginiana in Arkansas and New Mexico.

372. Beal, J.A.; McClintick, K.B. 1943. The pales weevil in Southern Pines. Journal of Economic Entomology. 36: 792-794.

The life history and habits of the pales weevil (Hylobius pales Herbst) in the southern States differ somewhat from those recorded for New England. In the vicinity of Durham, North Carolina, there is one complete generation and a partial second overlapping generation annually. The weevil appears to breed only in the roots of stumps and dying trees, and the larvae feed singly. Apparently all species of pine are liable to attack, and severe damage has been caused to Cupressus arizonica. Juniperus virginiana is also attacked to some extent. Damage is proportional to the size of the trees and to the number of weevils present. Young pines from the seedling stage up to 4 or 5 feet in height suffer most severely, especially if they are in the vicinity of freshly cut stumps, dying pines, or of logging or building operations. The weevil is attracted to the vicinity of pines infested by bark beetles, feeds upon the surrounding reproduction and the limbs of infested trees, and later breeds in the roots. Losses have been noticeably heavier in areas under the group selection method of cutting than where clear cutting in strips is the method used.

373. Berisford, C.W. 1974. Hymenopterous parasitoids of the eastern juniper bark beetle, Phloeosinus dentatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Canadian Entomologist. 106(8): 869-872. 8 refs.

Nine species of Hymenopterous parasites were caught on adhesive traps as they were attracted to logs of redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) infested by Phloeosinus dentatus (Say) in Georgia in 1971 and 1972. All were successfully reared from infested logs; and Cheiropachus arizonensis (Ashm.), Eurytoma aequabilis Bugbee, Heydenia unica Cook & Davis, and Spathius impus Matthews were reared directly from larvae of P. dentatus, H. unica and Roptrocerus eccoptogastri (Ratz.), Coeloides pissodis (Ashm.), Rhopalicus pulchripennis (Crwf.) and E. conica Prov. Four of the species reared from the logs commonly attack Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm. and Ips. spp., indicating that P. dentatus may be an important alternate host when the other host populations are low.

374. Berisford, C.W. 1975. Patterns of attack by the eastern juniper bark beetle, Phloeosinus dentatus and some common associates. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society. 10(1): 37-42. 7 refs.

The attack patterns of males and females of Phloeosinus dentatus (Say) and common associated insects on Juniperus virginiana were determined by using sticky traps attached to the boles of felled trees. Associated insects included nine species of Hymenopterous parasites, three Clerid beetle predators, and two species of Cerambycidae. Two parasites, Spathius impus Matthews and Heydenia unica Cook & Davis, made up about 80 percent of the parasite complex. Arrivals of both sexes of P. dentatus reached a peak 5 days after the initial attack and were low after 50 days. The arrivals of parasites reached a peak 40-50 days after the initial attack.

375. Boldrev, M.I.; Wilde, W.H.A.; Smith, B.C. 1969. Predaceous coccinellid oviposition responses to Juniperus wood. Canadian Entomologist. 101(11): 1199-1206. 10 refs.

In laboratory experiments at Belleville and Guelph, Ontario, four coccinellid species (Cycloneda mundi, Adalia bipunctata, Coccinella transverso-guttata richardsoni, and Coleomegilia maculata lengi) were strongly attracted to Juniperus virginiana for oviposition. The attractant substances appeared to be in the wood. In laboratory cages at temperatures of 24o to 29.5o C, oviposition took place on test boards at distances up to 70 cm from the host plant. The possibility is discussed of using juniper boards to aggregate ovipositing coccinellid females in areas where large aphid infestations are expected.

376. Boratynski, K. 1957. On the two species of the genus Carulaspis Macgillivray (Homoptera:Coccccoidea, Diaspidinae) in Britain. Entomologists' Monthly Magazine. 93(1121): 246-251. 18 refs.

Includes diagnoses, life histories, and drawings of Carulaspis juniperi and C. minima, the former found on Chamaecyparis lawsoniana and C. nootkatensis, Cupressocyparis leylandii, Cupressus spp., Juniperus communis var. hibernica (but not on indigenous J. communis), J. sinensis and J. virginiana, Libocedrus decurrens, Sequoia gigantea, and Thuja occidentalis. C. minima has been found only at Kew Gardens (on J. virginiana, T. occidentalis, and C. lawsoniana). The material examined yielded no hymenopterous parasites.

377. Boyce, J.S. 1962. Greenhouse inoculations of coniferous seedlings with Fomes annosus. Phytopathology. 52(1): 4.

When seed of Pinus taeda, P. palustris, P. echinata, P. elliottii, and P. strobus was sown over infected pine roots buried 2-3 inches in the soil, infection was confirmed within a year only on the roots of two dying P. echinata seedlings and of one apparently healthy P. palustris. When 1- or 2-year-old seedlings of P. taeda, P. strobus, and Juniperus virginiana were planted in pots containing infected root pieces, infection occurred in all species within a year--mostly in roots 1-2 mm thick. In some inoculum pieces, F. annosus was still alive after a year in the soil.

378. Brener, W.D.; Setliff, E.C.; Norgren, R.L. 1974. Sclerophoma pythiophila associated with a tip dieback of juniper in Wisconsin. Plant Disease Reporter. 58(7): 653-657. 21 refs.

Reports surveys made in nurseries in 1972 and 1973 to determine the prevalence of this disease. In 1973, 45 out of the 53 nurseries had infected stock. The fungus was found on various selections of Juniperus chinensis, J. glauca, J. horizontalis, J. sabina, and J. virginiana. This is the first report of the fungus on Juniperus in North America. It is believed to be a weak pathogen, and winter injury may predispose branches to infection. Microscopical examination of the pycnidia is necessary to distinguish this disease from juniper blight caused by Phomopsis juniperovora.

379. Caveness, F.E. 1957. Root-lesion nematode recovered from eastern redcedar at Halsey, Nebraska. Plant Disease Reporter. 41: 1058.

One- and two-year-old seedlings from the Bessey Nursery at Halsey, Nebraska, had numerous root lesions caused by Pratylenchus penetrans. Infected 2-year-old seedlings were 6-8 cm in height, while unaffected seedlings were 31-37 cm.

380. Clakins, L.A. 1948. DDT in juniper mealybug control. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society.19(2): 60-62.

The juniper mealybug (Pseudococcus juniperi) can be eradicated from heavily infested trees of the redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) varieties by thoroughly spraying the trunk and foliage with a mixture consisting of 4 ounces of 50 percent DDT wettable powder plus 2 teaspoons of NNOR (a commercial product containing rotenone) to 1 gallon of water. For protective spraying, 2 ounces of the 50 percent DDT wettable powder can be used to the same amounts of NNOR and water.

381. Davis, T.C.; Kelley, W.D.; Coggans, J.F. 1972. Curvularia intermedius (sic) associated with seedling tip blight of Arizona cypress and eastern redcedar. Plant Disease Reporter. 56(2): 192. 2 refs.

Reports a recurrence at Auburn Forest Nursery during 1970 of attack on Cupressus arizonica by C. intermedia (previously recorded in 1966), together with a similar but less severe attack on Juniperus virginiana.

382. Davis, W.C.; Wright, E.; Hartley, C. 1942. Diseases of forest-tree nursery stock. Civ. Conserv. Corps For. Pub. 9. Washington, DC: U.S. Federal Security Agency: 58-61.

383. Dean, G.A. 1940. Report of the State Entomologist. Some insects causing injury to shade trees in 1939. Biennial Report of the Kansas Horticultural Society. 45: 169-172.

Three sprayings with 1 pint of nicotine sulphate, 2 quarts of winter or summer spray oil, and 100 gallons of water, applied about 31 May, 1 July, and 14 August, gave excellent control of Cryptaspidiotus shasta Coleman on Juniperus virginiana and did not injure the trees; where infestation was severe, a fourth spraying was made in mid-September. Satisfactory control of Fascista (Gelechia) cercerisella Chamb. on Cercis canadensis was obtained with sprays of 3 pounds of lead arsenate and 2 quarts of summer oil in 100 gallons of water, applied in April and May. Good control of Melasoma lineatopunctata Forst. (Lina scripta F.) on willows and poplars was obtained with a spray of 4 pounds of lead arsenate and 2 quarts of summer oil per 100 gallons of water. Notes are included on the biology of these insects.

384. Dean, G.A. 1942. Control of three red cedar scales. Kansas Horticultural Society. 6: 80-82.

Describes life histories and controls for three scale insects: redcedar scale, Cryptaspidiotus shasta; European fruit lecanium, Lecanium corni; and redcedar mealy bug, Pseudococcus juniperi.

385. Doggett, C.A.; Hawley, V.; Norris, W. 1980. Cricket damage to redcedar seedlings. Tree Planters Notes. 31(3): 18. 1 ref.

Mortality of 1+0 Juniperus virginiana seedlings in a nursery in North Carolina in 1979 was confirmed as due to girdling by crickets (Gryllus assimilis) by experimental testing in cages containing crickets and seedlings. Damage was easily controlled by insecticide application.

386. Dominik, J. 1969. Further results of studies on the possibility of damage to the wood of some tree species by Hylotrupes bajulus. Sylwan. 13(8): 39-42. 6 refs. Polish.

Experiments showed that wood of Thuja occidentalis, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, C. obtusa, C. pisifera, Pinus strobus, P. cembra, and Juniperus communis was not resistant to attack by H. bajulus, and suffered damage similar to that of P. sylvestris. However, wood of Cryptomeria japonica and Juniperus virginiana caused high mortality of H. bajulus larvae.

387. Dwyer, W.W., Jr. 1951. Fomes annosus on eastern redcedar in two Piedmont forests. Journal of Forestry. 49(4): 259-262. 6 refs.

Examination of over 10,300 cedars (Juniperus virginiana) in the Duke and Calhoun Forests showed Fomes annosus to be a common and serious pathogen on this species in these areas. The average diameter for all trees affected was 4 inches. Trees below 1 inch in diameter largely escaped lethal attack. The cedar was attacked primarily in pine forest types but also to varying degrees in hardwood forests. There may be a relation between this distribution and the fact that F. annosus occurred commonly on dead pine roots and stumps; also between F. annosus attack and the greater erosion in pine than in hardwood forests. More diseased trees were found on eroded and gullied pine slopes than in any other location. Certain soils derived from basic rocks seemed to have a lower incidence of F. annosus than soils from acid rocks. The fungus fruited on 15 percent of the cedars found to be attacked at Union. Root-to-root transmission and conidial sporulation on litter are other possible means of spread. Only sapwood of cedar is invaded by the fungus; heartwood contains a principle, presumably associated with cedarwood oil, that is toxic to the fungus. Redcedar approaching post and pole size in the Piedmont region, as exemplified by the two areas studied, can be expected to sustain losses exceeding 10 percent of the trees.

388. Ellis, J.B.; Everhart, B.M. 1887. Additions to Cercospora, Gloeosporium, and Cylindro-sporium. Journal of Mycology. 3: 13-22.

389. Graves, A.A.; Witcher, W. 1971. Monochaetia canker of Arizona cypress and redcedar in South Carolina. Plant Disease Reporter. 55(9): 810-813. 20 refs.

Conidial morphology indicates that the canker disease of Cupressus arizonica and C. glabra is caused by Monochaetia unicornis. In inoculation experiments, conidial suspensions of M. unicornis caused infections in C. arizonica, C. glabra, and Juniperus virginiana when applied to artificial wounds, but infected the cypresses only when applied to unwounded plants. M. unicornis was found on C. arizonica and C. glabra throughout much of South Carolina, but not on J. virginiana.

390. Greene, H.C. 1942. Notes on Wisconsin parasitic fungi. II. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts and Letters. 34: 83-98.

Among the fungi recorded are Microsphaera alni var. extensa and Phyllactinia corylea on Quercus rubra, Gloeosporium septorioides on Quercus ellipsoidalis, Uncinula salicis on Salix rostrata, Septoria salicina on Salix fragilis, Dothidella betulina on Betula pumila var. glandulifera, Phomopsis juniperovera, and Pestalotia funerea on Juniperus virginiana and Septoria populi on Populus nigra.

391. Gremmen, J. 1963. Conifer inhabiting fungi. II. Chloroscypha seaveri and Fabrella tsugae in the Netherlands. Weinheim, Germany: Nova Hedwigia. 6(1/2): 21-27. 9 refs.

Covers C. seaveri on Thuja plicata, C. sabinae on Juniperus virginiana, C. cryptomeriae on Cryptomeria japonica, and F. tsugae on Tsuga canadensis. Other discomycetes from the same hosts are reviewed.

392. Gunkel, W. 1963. (I) Cupressobium juniperinum, a pest of Thuja occidentalis. Its morphology and biology. (II) Natural enemies and population fluctuations of C. juniperinum. Zeitschrift fuer Angewandte Zoogie. 50(1; 3): 1-48; 329-341. 41 refs. German.

Reports results of a study of C. juniperinum on T. occidentalis in northwest Germany, where it caused discoloration and dieback of branchlets. It was successfully transferred to T. plicata, Juniperus virginiana, and Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, but not to J. communis. Predators, parasites, and a fungus disease are discussed. Population peaks occurred in May and in October-November.

393. Haseman, L.; McLane, S.R. 1940. The history and biology of the Juniper midge (Contarinia juniperina Felt). Annales of the Entomological Society of America. 33: 432-433, 612-614.

Dead tip growth on Juniperus virginiana caused by Contarinia juniperina Felt was first observed in Missouri in the late autumn of 1936 and became more severe in 1937 and 1938. The midge has one generation a year and overwinters in the larval stage in the top 3 inches of litter and soil under the trees. Pupation occurs in spring and the emergence of adults begins at the end of April. Mating, oviposition, and death usually occur within a few days of emergence. Eggs are laid under the base of the needles of new growth near the tip of the twigs and hatch in about a week. The larvae bore under the base of the needles and make a cavity in the soft twig; they do not become fully fed until October or November, when they drop to the ground, though a few mature live larvae occur in the twigs throughout the winter and even in spring. The injury appears in early summer as a watery blister, but by late summer or early autumn many of the twigs are cut and the tips begin to dry and bleach. A severely infested tree turns brown during late autumn, especially on the south exposure, and most of the brown tips break off during the winter. After 2 or 3 years of severe injury, most of the fine growth is removed from the trees. C. juniperina appears to be confined to junipers. In Missouri it attacks J. virginiana and J. scopulorum the most severely and other species to a lesser extent, but has not been found on the upright or pfitzer varieties of J. chinensis. It is widely distributed in Missouri; has also been observed in Kansas, Nebraska, and Kentucky; and probably occurs in other states. It appears to be unaffected by normal winter cold or prolonged high summer temperatures, but infestation is reduced by prolonged cold rains when the adults are emerging and ovipositing. The only effective natural enemy is Platygaster pini Fonts, which parasitizes the larvae and destroyed large numbers in 1938 and 1939.

394. Hess, C.E.; Welch, D.S. 1954. Chalaropsis thielavioides Peyronel found on evergreen grafting stock. Plant Disease Reporter. 38(6): 415-416.

395. Hildebrand, D.M.; Dinkel, G.B. 1988. Basamid and solar heating effective for control of plant-parasitic nematodes at Bessey Nursery, Nebraska. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-167. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 139-144. 11 refs.

Fumigation with Dowfume MC-33 (methyl bromide/chloropicrin), granular Basamid (dazomet) sealed by water spray or polyethylene sheeting, and solar heating with polyethylene sheeting were compared for control of Fusarium spp., plant-parasitic nematodes and weeds in an eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) nursery. All treatments controlled nematodes. Solar heating and polyethylene-sealed dazomet were less effective than methyl bromide for control of Fusarium spp. Water-sealed dazomet did not control Fusarium spp. Only methyl bromide and solar heating controlled weeds. Seedling survival following autumn sowing was poor because of frost injury.

396. Hodges, C.S. 1961. New hosts for Cercospora thujina Plakidas. Plant Disease Reporter. 45(9): 745. 2 refs.

397. Hodges, C.S. 1962. Comparison of four similar fungi from Juniperus and related conifers. Mycologia. 54(1): 62-69. 15 refs.

A fungus causing serious needle blight of Juniperus virginiana in the eastern U.S.A., previously thought to be Exosporium glomerulosum, has been identified as Cercospora sequoiae var. juniperi. It also occurred on Cupressus arizonica. Taxonomy, host range, and distribution of this and of C. sequoiae (affecting Thuja orientalis, Sequoia gigantea, S. sempervirens, Cupressus spp., and Chamaecyparis pisifera), Stigmina juniperina (affecting Juniperus spp.), and S. (Exosporium) glomerulosa (affecting J. communis) are discussed.

398. Hodges, C.S.; Kuhlman, E.G. 1974. Spread of Fomes annosus in roots of redcedar and loblolly pine. Plant Disease Reporter. 58(3): 282-284. 14 refs.

In separate trials in 1970 and 1971, roots of Juniperus virginiana and Pinus taeda in a mixed stand in the Piedmont of North Carolina were exposed and inoculated with F. annosus (either by drilling or by contact), and the soil was then replaced and left for 6 months. There was substantial variation between the two trials in both the number of trees infected and the rate of spread of infection, and the results gave no satisfactory explanation of the previously observed difference in mortality between the two tree species.

399. Hodges, C.S.; May, L.C. 1972. A root disease of pine, araucaria and eucalyptus in Brazil caused by a new species of Cylindrocladium. Phytopathology. 62(8): 898-901. 9 refs.

Describes C. clavatum, found in four states in S. Brazil, where it attacks trees up to 15 years old. Pathogenicity studies in Brazil showed that seedlings of all seven species of Pinus commonly planted there were killed in 2 weeks. In the U.S.A., Liriodendron tulipifera, Pinus taeda, and Araucaria angustifolia seedlings were attacked and killed, whereas Juniperus virginiana was not visibly affected; C. scoparium was less pathogenic than C. clavatum on L. tulipifera and did not attack the other species. The symptoms and spread patterns are very similar to those of Fomes annosus.

400. Hostetter, D.L.; Ignoffo, C.M.; Kearby, W.H. 1975. Persistence of formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis spores and crystals on eastern redcedar foliage in Missouri. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 48(2): 189-193. 5 refs.

The persistence of sprays of two preparations containing spores of Bacillus thuringiensis (Thuricide and Dipel) on eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), an ornamental tree grown in residential areas of midwestern parts of the United States, was determined in field studies in Missouri. Determination of the number of viable spores on foliage samples collected immediately before and after treatment and 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after treatment and determination of the insecticidal activity of the deposits (by bioassay with larvae of Trichoplusia ni (Hb.) showed that the addition of both carbon and molasses to the Thuricide spray significantly protected spore viability and insecticidal activity. The insecticidal activity of Dipel and a mixture of Thuricide and carbon was still detectable 14 days after treatment.

401. Howell, F.C.; Stambaugh, W.J. 1972. Rates of pathogenic and saprophytic development of Fomes annosus in roots of dominant and suppressed eastern redcedar. Plant Disease Reporter. 56(11): 987-990.

F. annosus inoculations were made by placing inoculum between the two parts of severed roots of dominant and suppressed Juniperus virginiana in a pure stand and in one mixed with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). On both sites, proximal movement of the fungus, from the point of severance (and inoculation), was greater in roots of dominant trees (6.6 cm/month) than in roots of suppressed ones (4.2 cm/month). In both classes, root penetration proximally (5.2 cm/month) exceeded distal spread (3 cm/month). The results, which show a direct relationship between tree vigor and F. annosus susceptibility, differ from other results suggesting that other factors must be considered.

402. Kelman, A.; Hodges, C.S.; Garriss, H.R. 1960. Needle blight of redcedar, Juniperus virginiana L. Plant Disease Reporter. 44(7): 527-531. 22 refs.

A needle blight of J. virginiana in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia is characterized by the ashbrown color of affected needles, severe defoliation of lower branches, and an unusual development of juvenile needles. The fungus Exosporium glomerulosum is associated with the disease, which was successfully controlled in a Christmas-tree plantation by spraying with Ortho Phaltan 50 W (N-trichloromethylthiophthalimide) at concentrations of 2 lb/100 gal water at 10- to 14-day intervals and after heavy rain, from the end of May to mid-September.

403. Kim, K.C.; Park, J.D. 1984. Studies on ecology and injury characteristics of Japanese Juniperus bark borer, Semanotus bifasciatus Motschulsky. Korean Journal of Plant Protection. 23(2): 109-115. 18 refs. Korean.

The biology, food-plant range, and damage caused by Semanotus bifasciatus, which recently caused severe damage to Juniperaceae in Chonnam Province, Korea Republic, were investigated. The most severe damage occurred on Juniperus chinensis and J. chinensis var. kaizuka, which was studied for the first time; Thuja occidentalis, Biota orientalis var. nepalensis (T. orientalis var. nepalensis), J. virginiana, Chamaecyparis obtusa and Thujopsis dolabrata were also attacked in order of descending intensity. Infestation was 16 percent in Kwangju, 6 percent in Hwasoon, and 4 percent in Damyang. Most (62 percent) of the larvae after penetrating the trunk bored downwards, 22 percent bored upwards, and 16 percent bored horizontally; the damage was greatest in trees or shrubs with stems 30-40 mm in diameter at breast height. The species was univoltine, with an adult population peak from late March to late April and a daily emergence peak at 1,300-1,500 hours according to temperature. The egg stage lasted 15.8-19.7 days, the larval stage lasted 112-126 days, the pupal stage lasted 15-21 days, and the adult life span was 19 days for females and 16 days for males.

404. Kudon, L.H.; Berisford, C.W. 1980. Influence of brood hosts on host preferences of bark beetle parasites. Nature. 283(5744): 288-290. 18 refs.

In the U.S.A., the forest pest Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm. is attacked by several species of Hymenopterous parasites, the most common of which also parasitize other bark beetles, including Ips grandicollis (Eichh.), I. avulsus (Eichh.), I. calligraphus (Germ.), I. pini (Say), and Phloeosinus dentatus (Say). The increasing importance of pest management has focused attention on the role of natural enemies. However, the dynamics of populations of parasites of scolytids is not generally known beyond estimates of mortality caused by the parasites. The hymenopteran-parasite guild of D. frontalis may kill up to 30 percent of a given brood. Since D. frontalis is cyclical in most areas, with epidemics being followed by very low population densities, other scolytid hosts probably act as reservoirs for certain species of these parasites. Conversely, during D. frontalis epidemics, other beetles, such as I. grandicollis and P. dentatus, may compete as alternative hosts. Information on parasite preferences for D. frontalis and other associated bark beetles is necessary to understand the interactions of this host-parasite complex. The authors report the results of a field study carried out in Georgia to determine whether several known parasites of D. frontalis exhibit any preferences between D. frontalis, I. grandicollis, and P. dentatus. Trap bolts for D. frontalis and I. grandicollis were cut from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and those for Phloeosinus dentatus were cut from eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana). The parasites found included Heydenia unica Cook & Davis, Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Ratz.), Coeloides pissodis (Ashm.), Dendrosoter sulcatus Mues., Dinotiscus dendroctoni (Ashm.) (Cecidostiba dendroctoni), Spathius pallidus Ashm., and S. impus Matthews. The results showed that parasites that were not host-specific tended to attack the host on which they were reared but still retained the ability to use other hosts if the preferred host was not available. This behavior was advantageous to the parasites in that they could use all the potential hosts more efficiently by switching to relatively more abundant alternative hosts when populations of preferred hosts decreased. This may also have increased prey diversity. It was thought that the switching mechanism would be particularly helpful to species with relatively low host-finding efficiencies. The most common parasite in the study, R. xylophagorum, was unable to locate potential hosts present in low numbers in proportion to the number located when hosts were abundant, but its ability to attack a variety of hosts apparently allowed it to maintain substantial populations. The impact of the parasite guild of Dendroctonus frontalis may have been affected by the numbers of alternative hosts. Parasites may have switched from other hosts during expansions of D. frontalis populations if D. frontalis became much more abundant than the 'preferred' host. The host-selection mechanism therefore served to concentrate the parasites on the epidemic host after a period of time. As the epidemic populations declined, the parasites could accept other hosts as they became relatively abundant, thereby reducing the impact of parasites on declining host populations.

405. Lee, J.J.; Weber, D.E. 1979. The effect of simulated acid rain on seedling emergence and growth of eleven woody species. Forest Science. 25(3): 393-398. 21 refs.

Seeds of 11 woody species were exposed to 2.3 cm/wk of simulated sulfuric acid rain at pH values of 3.0, 3.5, or 4.0, or to a simulated control rain at approximately pH 5.6. All treatments also contained a neutral mixture of cations and anions. Seeds or seedlings were subject to ambient conditions, except for precipitation. Ambient rainfall was excluded by a partial covering, which allowed some dry deposition. Seeds were planted in winter 1977; seedlings were harvested the following summer. The dry weights of the top and roots of each seedling were recorded. Although eight species were affected by simulated acid rain, the direction and magnitude of effects varied with species and with treatment. Seedling emergence was stimulated by at least one acid treatment for four species and inhibited for one species. Top growth was stimulated for at least one acid treatment for four species, while root growth was inhibited for one species. Except for one species, whose emergence rate and top growth were both affected, effects were confined to one measured parameter.

406. McDunnough, J. 1942. Notes on the early stages of two Eupithecia species (Lepidoptera). Canadian Entomologist. 74: 202-203.

Brief notes are given on the life history of Eupithecia filmata Pears. taken from spruce, and on larval differences in what are considered by the author to be two closely related species of Eupithecia: E. gibsonata Tayl. (chagnoni Swett), which feeds on cedar (Thuja occidentalis); and E. arceuthata Fr. which feeds on juniper (Juniperus virginiana).

407. McFeeley, J.C.; Roberts, E.P. 1974. Aureolaria grandiflora var. serrata, parasite of Juniperus virginiana. Plant Disease Reporter. 58(9): 773. 3 refs.

During the summer of 1973, A. grandiflora var. serrata was observed growing in parasitic relationship with Quercus stellata (post oak), Q. marilandica (blackjack oak), and Juniperus virginiana (eastern redcedar) in Lamar County, Texas; this is the first record of the parasite on eastern redcedar.

408. Mead, F.W., ed. 1989. Bureau of nematology. Triology Tech. Rep. Gainesville, FL: Florida Department of Agriculture Conservation Service, Division of Plant Industries. 28(10): 5-6.

New host records according to Department of Plant Industry files included Criconemoides citri on Juniperus virginiana.

409. Miller, J.K. 1943. Fomes annosus and redcedar. Journal of Forestry. 41: 37-40.

Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) in the southeastern United States may be attacked by Fomes annosus, which kills trees of all ages and causes a pocket rot of butt logs. This tree is particularly susceptible to attack by the fungus when overtopped by competing trees, but F. annosus will cause little damage if cedars are grown on suitable sites and exposed to full sunlight. Silvicultural practices that reduce or eliminate competition for light should greatly reduce losses from the disease.

410. Ostrofsky, A.; Ostrofsky, W.D. 1984. Kabatina juniperi associated with branch tip dieback of eastern redcedar in Maine. Plant Disease Reporter. 68(4): 351.

The pathogen is newly reported from Maine, on naturally occurring Juniperus virginiana.

411. Ostrofsky, A.; Peterson, G.W. 1977. Occurrence of Kabatina juniperi on Juniperus virginiana in eastern Nebraska. Plant Disease Reporter. 61(6): 512-513. 9 refs.

In spring 1976, K. juniperi was isolated from branches of J. virginiana with tip dieback. This is the first report of Kabatina spp. in the U.S.A.

412. Ostrofsky, A.; Peterson, G.W. 1979. Infection of Juniperus virginiana by Kabatina juniperi. Phytopathology. 69(9): 1040-1041.

Symptoms are described for branch tip dieback caused by K. juniperi, and some cultural characteristics of the organism (isolated from several locations in Nebraska) are given. Wounding of healthy foliage before inoculation was necessary for successful infection as the fungus entered through the wound.

413. Ostrofsky, A.; Peterson, G.W. 1981. Etiologic and cultural studies of Kabatina juniperi. Plant Disease Reporter. 65(11): 908-910. 8 refs.

The fungus caused a branch tip dieback of Juniperus virginiana and J. scopulorum in eastern Nebraska. Infected tips became discolored in early spring; acervuli were present in February, abundant and erumpent in April and May, and were present in decreasing numbers until October. Cultural studies are described. Spore germination was maximum at 24o C and pH 6; light had no effect. Wounding was necessary for infection to occur in glasshouse tests. Seedlings became infected when incubated at 100 percent relative humidity, 24o C for 24 hours or at 16o-28o C for 5 days. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the fungus entered foliage through wounds.

414. Peterson, G.W. 1964. Heat treatment of nematode-infested eastern redcedar roots. Plant Disease Reporter. 48(11): 862. 1 ref.

Briefly describes successful tests made to determine whether hot-water treatment could be used to kill root-lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus penetrans) in Juniperus virginiana, as had been done with other species. Survival counts were made 4 months later on sample transplants, and immersion in hot water at 52o C for 2 minutes was found to have been the safest and most effective combination. Hot water was more injurious to roots of healthy plants than to roots of nematode-infected plants.

415. Peterson, G.W. 1987. Resistance to Kabatina juniperi within Juniperus virginiana and Juniperus scopulorum progenies. Phytopathology. 77(12): 1726-1728.

416. Platt, W.D.; Cowling, E.B.; Hodges, C.S., Jr. 1965. Resistance of coniferous root wood and stem wood to decay by Fomes annosus. Phytopathology. 55(2): 130-131.

In test with 16 tissue inoculata isolated from 8 tree species, the isolates caused no more decay in their associated species than in others. Resistance was greatest in Juniperus virginiana; intermediate in Pinus resinosa, P. virginiana, and P. palustris; and lowest in P. echinata, P. elliottii var. elliottii, P. taeda, and P. strobus. Stem wood was more resistant than root wood. In tests with tissue and monobasidiospore isolates on the stem sapwood of two species, the former caused more decay in P. strobus. Liquidambar styraciflua was highly resistant to both.

417. Ponnappa, K.M. 1975. Parasympodiella gen. nov. Transactions of the British Mycology Society. 64(2): 344-345. 3 refs.

Describes the genus and P. laxa comb. nov. (formerly Sympodiella laxa), which has been recovered from leaves of Eucalyptus paniculata in Brazil, and shoots of Juniperus virginiana in North Carolina.

418. Prince, A.E. 1946. The biology of Gymnosporangium nidus-avis Thaxter. Farlowia. 2(4): 475-525.

Includes taxonomy (nidus-avis = juvenescens); geographical distribution; life history of the spermogonial, aecial, and telial phases; the pomaceous hosts and their relative susceptibility to G. nidus-avis; the average degree of susceptibility of the three telial hosts (Juniperus virginiana, J. scopulorum, and J. horizontalis); a list of immune species; and economic importance and control.

419. Rowan, S.J. 1960. Susceptibility of twenty-three tree species to black root rot. Phytopathology. 50(9): 653.

In tests with seedlings pot-grown in soil heavily infected with Sclerotium bataticola and Fusarium spp. at soil temperatures of 85o-90o F, 6 coniferous species died of rot and/or soil temperature, and 11 Pinus species were rated susceptible. Of the rest, P. glabra and Juniperus virginiana were highly resistant, and Cupressus arizonica, Taxodium distichum, Chamaecyparis thyoides and Liquidambar styraciflua were totally resistant.

420. Schuder, D.L. 1963. A juniper tip midge, Oligotrophus sp. Entomological Society of America. 18: 60.

Describes the biology, bionomics (four broods in one summer), etc., of this pest, which causes serious damage to Juniperus virginiana var. cannaerti in Indiana, but is also reported from other regions and other species. In a trial of 11 insecticidal foliage sprays and 3 granular systemics worked into the soil at 1 oz active principle/tree at 5 dates from April to August, one application of the systemic Cygon (dimethoate) gave almost complete control.

421. Shokova, R.J. 1983. Susceptibility of introduced woody plants to injury by sulphur dioxide. Byulleten Glavnogo Botanicheskii Sada. 129: 55-57. 7 refs. Russian.

Shoots of 10 Betula spp. and 8 Juniperus spp. were exposed to 22 or 44 mg/m3 SO2 for 45 to 60 minutes, and leaf tissue injury was estimated 24, 48, and 72 hours after exposure. The severity of injury (chlorosis and necrosis) was affected mainly by plant origin (sp.), leaf age, and exposure duration. B. lenta, B. subcordata, J. virginiana, and J. sabina were the most resistant spp., and B. fontinalis, B. papyrifera, J. sibirica, and J. communis were among the least resistant.

422. Smith, B.C.; Starratt, A.N.; Bodnaryk, R.P. 1973. Oviposition responses of Coleomegilla maculata lengi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to the wood and extracts of Juniperus virginiana and to various chemicals. Entomological Society of America. 66(2): 452-456. 14 refs.

Methods are described to determine the effects of different substances on the oviposition behavior of Ceratomegilla (Coleomegilla maculata lengi Timb.). The preparation, assay, and chemistry of various materials from the wood of Juniperus virginiana are reported. Two fractions (A and B) acted as oviposition stimulants, whereas surfaces treated with another fraction (C) were avoided. Fractions A and B were polyphenols of high-molecular weight and showed general similarities to phlobaphenes from other sources. Fraction A caused apterae of Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) to form aggregates on treated filter paper. o-Coumaric, salicylic and protocatechuic acids, fluorescein, tannin and widdrol (2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8-octahydro-1,1,4a alpha, 7 beta -tetramethyl-1H-benzocyclohepten-7-ol) at concentrations of 2.0-10.0 mg/50 cm2 influenced C. m. lengi to lay eggs on or near treated surfaces. Contact with fluorescein (2.0 mg/50 cm2) increased the proportion of ovipositing females.

423. Smith, C.O. 1939. Susceptibility of species of Cupressaceae to crown gall as determined by artificial inoculation. Journal of Agricultural Research. 59: 919-925.

Cultures of Bacterium tumefaciens isolated from Prunus persica produced galls on Cupressus, Juniperus, and Thuja. Cultures from Salix sp. produced galls on the same genera and on Thujopsis. Those from Libocedrus decurrens gave negative results on all species except L. decurrens. Sixteen species of Cupressus proved susceptible to inoculation; on C. glabra and C. montana occasional knob-like growths, but no typical galls, were formed. One species, C. guadalupensis was apparently resistant. Galls were produced on Juniperus virginiana, J. phoenicea, and on one plant of J. procera, but only small knob-like growths were produced on J. hibernica and J. cedrus. Libocedrus decurrens and the three species of Thuja tested proved susceptible. The original plant of Thujopsis dolabrata was negative in response, but rooted cuttings from it developed typical rough galls. Chamaecyparis lawsoniana developed non-typical overgrowths. Control punctures on the various hosts healed over in a normal manner. The results are not conclusive because of the differences in the environmental conditions of the plants tested and the small number of inoculations on some of the species.

424. Smith, I.M. 1978. Two new species of Trisetacus (Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from berries of juniper in North America. Canadian Entomologist. 110(11): 1157-1160. 10 refs.

Trisetacus neoquadrisetus sp. n. is described from adult females found infesting berries of Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) in southern British Columbia in May 1976. It is suggested that specimens of T. quadrisetus (Thos.) that have been reported from the same food-plant in British Columbia in the past were in fact the new species. T. batonrougei sp. n. is described from adult females infesting berries of eastern redcedar (J. virginiana) in Ontario in September 1976.

425. Stevenson, J.A. 1940. A Meliola on a new host genus. Plant Disease Reporter. 24: 325-326.

A fungus agreeing in morphology with Meliola pinicola Dearness, previously described from Pinus echinata in North Carolina, has been found on Juniperus virginiana in the same state. This is the first record of Juniperus as a host for the genus Meliola. The fungus formed colonies not over 1-2 mm in diameter, scattered mostly at or near the base of the needle.

426. Tisserat, N.A.; Nus, A.; Barnes, L.W. 1991. A canker disease of the Cupressaceae in Kansas and Texas caused by Seiridium unicorne. Plant Disease Reporter. 75(2): 138-140. 13 refs.

S. unicorne caused cankers on oriental arborvitae (Thuja orientalis) and eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) in Kansas and Texas and on Italian cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), Arizona cypress (C. arizonica), and Leyland cypress (Cupressocyparis leylandii) in Texas. The fungus was also associated with small, annual cankers on bald-cypress (Taxodium distichum) in Kansas landscape plantings. Cankers on Rocky Mountain (J. scopulorum) and Chinese (J. chinensis) junipers and on northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis) developed 1 month after inoculation in greenhouse or field studies. No evidence of host specificity in fungal isolates was found.

427. Tisserat, N.A.; Rossman, A.Y.; Nus, A. 1988. A canker disease of Rocky Mountain juniper caused by Botryosphaeria stevensii. Plant Disease Reporter. 72(8): 699-701. 17 refs.

B. stevensii caused cankering of Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) in windbreak and ornamental plantings in Kansas, U.S.A. Multiple, coalescing cankers resulted in branch dieback and sometimes tree mortality. The fungus was also pathogenic to and caused canker formation on eastern redcedar (J. virginiana) and Chinese juniper (J. chinensis) in greenhouse and field inoculation studies. Apple and juniper isolates were host-specific.

428. USDA Forest Service. 1959. Exosporium glomerulosum disease of Juniperus virginiana. Res. Rep. SE-25. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 25-26.

Severe infections in North and South Carolina and Virginia have seriously damaged plantations, causing 10-15 percent mortality and rendering many plants unfit for sale as Christmas trees. Infection usually begins in the lower branches, progressing upwards and outwards; often only the needles on the tips of branches remain alive. There are indications that the blight can be controlled with bi-weekly applications of Phaltan (no details) at 2 lb/100 gal water.

429. Wheeler, A.G., Jr. 1984. Clastoptera arborina: seasonal history and habits on ornamental juniper in Pennsylvania (Homoptera:Cercopidae). Entomological Society of Washington. 86(4): 835-839. 9 refs.

The seasonal history and habits of Clastoptera arborina (which was often misidentified in the eastern U.S.A. as C. juniperina) were observed in south-eastern Pennsylvania on an ornamental hedge of Juniperus chinensis cv. Hetzii in 1981-1982. The overwintered eggs hatched in mid-May, and adults began to appear in mid-July. Notes are given on food-plants and distribution records of C. arborina from New York, North Carolina, and Tennessee. The cercopid was found to develop larger populations on exotic ornamental junipers than on the indigenous species J. virginiana, but infestation did not appear to affect plant vigor despite the large numbers of spittle masses observed.

430. Wilford, B.H. 1940. The seed-corn maggot, a pest of red cedar seedlings. Journal of Forestry. 38: 658-659.

The maggots (Hylemya cilicrura) attack young redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) seedlings through the roots or the soft bark of the stem, eating the soft tissue beneath the bark. The first indication of attack is an unhealthy appearance of the seedlings followed by wilting and yellowing of the stems at and above ground line, and finally the shredded bark and injured roots indicate the damage done. If only lateral roots are attacked and conditions are favorable, adventitious roots may develop and the plant may recover. It is suggested that infestations may be prevented by using inorganic rather than organic fertilizers, applying them in the fall or after the seedlings are 1.5 to 2 inches above ground, and by delaying planting so that seedlings do not develop during the wet period. Satisfactory control may be obtained by spraying carbon disulphide emulsion (1 quart of 50 percent strength to 50 gallons of water) at the rate of 1 pint per square foot of soil surface.

431. Winter, T.G. 1989. Cypress and juniper aphids. Arboric. Res. Note 80. London, UK: Department of Environment. 3 p. 3 refs.

In 1988, Cinara cupressi (mainly on X Cupressocyparis leylandii, but also on Chamaecyparis lawsoniana and Thuja occidentalis) and Cinara fresai (on Juniperus virginiana and J. chinensis, but not J. communis) occurred widely in southern England causing damage to ornamentals. Symptoms, the pests, and control measures are described.

432. Witcher, W.; Baxter, L.W.; Marbut, S.A. 1973. Benomyl promising chemical for leaf and stem diseases of redcedar and Arizona cypress. Plant Disease Reporter. 57(4): 315-317.

Reports trials with seven different fungicides on 2-year-old Christmas trees of Juniperus virginiana and Cupressus arizonica that had been artificially inoculated (with or without wounding) with Monochaetia unicornis, Phomopsis juniperovora, or Cercospora sequoiae var. juniperi in South Carolina during 1970-1972. Spraying with benomyl (significantly better than the other fungicides) eight times during the 3-year study period gave good control of all three fungi on both tree species. Laboratory studies with pure cultures confirmed the results of the field trials.

433. Yamazaki, S. 1987. Serious damage to mahogany by the shoot borer Hypsipyla grandella Zeller (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). Tropical Forestry. 8: 26-34. 5 refs. Japanese.

The characteristics and life cycle of the pest H. grandella are described. In an investigation in the Humboldt Experimental Forest (Peru), recent damage by this pest in September-October 1985 was greater in Juniperus virginiana than in Swietenia sp. while it was variable in Cedrela brasiliensis. The highest numbers of all developmental stages of the pest were found in March, but numbers were also high in November and April-May. The distribution of the pest showed a rapid spread between March and May. Methods of control using insecticides, biological control agents such as Trichogramma sp., Bracon sp. and Beauveria sp., and cultural control are discussed.

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