An Annotated Bibliography of Eastern Redcedar


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1. Adams, R.P. 1970. Chemosystematic and numerical studies in natural populations of Juniperus. Dissertation Abstracts International, B. Science and Engineering. 69(21): 755. 248 p.

J. ashei and J. pinchotii were analyzed for areas of speciation and possible hybridization. Their interactions with each other and with J. virginiana, J. scopulorum, J. monosperma, J. deppeana, and J. flaccida were examined, using both morphological and terpenoid characters.

2. Adams, R.P. 1986. Geographic variation in Juniperus silicicola and J. virginiana of the southeastern United States: multivariate analyses of morphology and terpenoids. International Bureau of Plant Taxon Nomenclature. 35(1): 61-75. 25 refs.

Concludes that J. silicicola is within the range of variation of J. virginiana and should be treated as a variety.

3. Agramont, F.; Busking, R.; Mitchell, J.; Enzinger, E. 1948. The red cedar. Missouri Botanical Garden Bulletin. 36: 86-92.

Reports distribution of eastern redcedar in the St. Louis, Missouri area, wood color, and leaf variation.

4. Aleksandrovskij, E.S. 1966. Embryological studies of Juniperus spp. of [Soviet] Central Asia. Botanicheskii Zhurnal. 51(3): 436-446. 23 refs. Russian.

A detailed illustrated account covers J. seravschanica, J. semiglobosa, and J. turkestanica, with J. virginiana, J. communis, J. sabina, and Thuja orientalis for comparison.

5. Aleksandrovskij, E.S. 1971. Development of ovules and microsporogenesis in species of Juniperus. Botanicheskii Zhurnal. 56(2): 193-201. 25 refs. Russian.

Reports results of a comparative study of the development of male and female cones in J. seravschanica, J. semiglobosa, J. turkestanica, J. turcomanica, J. communis, and J. virginiana at Tashkent. Considerable differences were observed between species in the time of initiation and differentiation of cones.

6. Allison, F.E.; Klein, C.J. 1961. Comparative rates of decomposition in soil of wood and bark particles of several softwood species. Soil Science Society of America. 25(3): 193-196. 4 refs.

In order to determine the suitability of finely ground woods and barks of Libocedrus decurrens, Taxodium distichum, Sequoia sempervirens, Larix occidentalis, Tsuga canadensis, Abies magnifica, A. concolor, Pseudotsuga taxifolia, Juniperus virginiana, and Picea engelmannii as mulches and soil amendments, their rates of decomposition in soil were determined in the laboratory at two levels of N by measuring CO2 evolution for 53-800 days. The woods and barks of all these species were considerably more resistant to biological attack than was shortleaf pine sawdust. L. decurrens, T. distichum, S. sempervirens, T. canadensis, and J. virginiana were particularly resistant to decomposition. Owing to the slow rates of decomposition, the soil was able to furnish adequate available N for maximum rates of decomposition in all cases, and supplementary N was not needed.

7. Anseth, B. 1978. Trees and shrubs, where are you? Soil Conservation. 43(10): 20-21.

Describes the work of MITOSIS (Montana Interagency Tree or Shrub Improvement Study), a program set up by three agencies (USDA Forest Service, USDA Soil Conservation Service, and the Forestry Division of the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation) to develop improved varieties of trees or shrubs for conservation purposes. Projects include: collection and progeny testing of seed from superior trees and shrubs in shelterbelts; improving the establishment of conifers; standardization of woody plant certification; and evaluation of Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) and eastern redcedar (J. virginiana) strains in the Great Plains.

8. Baer, N.W. 1985. Nutrient content in eastern redcedar foliage: seasonal variation. Tech. Bull. 86. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University, Agriculture Experiment Station. 9 p.

9. Bagley, W.T.; Read, R.A. 1960. Some temperature and photoperiod effects on growth of eastern redcedar seedlings. Iowa Journal of Science. 34(4): 595-602. 6 refs.

Eastern redcedar seedlings grown at daytime temperatures of 90o F responded differently in top and root growth to four combinations of night temperature and photoperiod. Greatest growth and highest top/root ratios were obtained by a diurnal fluctuation from 90 to 59o F with a 20-hour photoperiod (long-moderate). A diurnal fluctuation from 90 to 45o F with a 20-hour photoperiod (long-cold) produced the smallest seedlings with the lowest top/root ratios. Heights and weights at 59o F (moderate) night temperature were significantly greater under 20-hour (long) photoperiod than under 14-hour (normal) photoperiod. Variation in growth response within treatment was greatest under the 90 to 45o F (long-cold) and least under the 90 to 80o F (long-hot) temperature regime. Seedling heights and top/root ratios tended to equalize after 6 months in an outdoor environment, but significant differences in total weight did not change.

10. Bahari, Z.A.; Pallardy, S.G.; Parker, W.C. 1985. Photosynthesis, water relations, and drought adaptation in six woody species of oak-hickory forests in central Missouri. Forest Science. 31(3): 557-569. 33 refs.

Photosynthesis, leaf conductance, water potential, and tissue water relations were examined for 2- to 6-m-tall saplings of species from habitats of varying soil moisture content in the growing seasons of 1980 (hot and dry) and 1981 (wet). Drought substantially reduced leaf conductance in all angiosperm trees (Quercus velutina, Q. alba, Q. rubra, Cornus florida, and Acer saccharum), but only slightly reduced conductance of Juniperus virginiana. C. florida showed the most pronounced response to drought, because of its inability to avoid low water potential; this is attributable to its known habit of shallow rooting. Differences in drought adaptation were apparent among the broadleaves, with Quercus spp. (adapted to drier sites) showing generally lower osmotic potentials at full turgor and turgor loss point, higher moduli of leaf tissue elasticity, and higher rates of photosynthesis during drought, compared with A. saccharum and C. florida. J. virginiana, usually found on very dry sites, showed a different pattern of drought adaptation: an inherently low capacity for water loss, and the ability to sustain stomatal opening at low water potentials.

11. Bailey, L.H. 1933. The cultivated conifers in North America, comprising the pine family and the taxads. New York, NY: Macmillian Press. 404 p.

Presents a detailed botanical description of eastern redcedar, with very general information on cultivation, propagation, and on insects, diseases, and injuries.

12. Bannan, M.W. 1942. Wood structure of the native Ontario species of Juniperus. American Journal of Botany. 29: 245-252.

Many of the trends in anatomical variation in different parts of the tree in J. virginiana resembled those observed in Thuja occidentalis. Similar tendencies were noted in such characters as size of the tracheids, size and distribution of the intertracheary pits, size and number of pits per crossing field, height and distribution of rays, and size of ray cells. Other features usually regarded as valuable for purposes of identification such as the thickness and character of the walls of the ray and xylem parenchyma cells also varied considerably. Because of such variability, it is clear that the selection of characters that will ultimately prove diagnostic must be held in abeyance until there is more complete knowledge of the range of variation in related forms. An expansion of certain of the rays to a multiseriate condition, such as observed in Thuja occidentalis, was also noted in all three local species of Juniperus. All adventitious roots arising from stems or branches connected with rays in the xylem were nearly always of this unusual type.

13. Barton, L.V. 1951. Germination of seeds of Juniperus virginiana L. Contributions from Boyce Thompson Institute. 16(8): 387-393. 8 refs.

Seeds of J. virginiana possess dormant embryos that require a period of 3 months at 5o C to after-ripen; 1o C is less effective and 10o C is totally ineffective. A large percent of seeds have impermeable coats, which may be made permeable by exposure to moisture at a temperature of 25o C for 2-8 weeks or by soaking for 30 minutes in concentrated H2SO4. Such treatment should precede stratification.

14. Baslas, R.K.; Saxena, S. 1985. Constituents of essential oil of cedar-wood [thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, beta-thujone, pi-anisaldehyde, pi-ethylvanillin, alfa-limonene, alfa-pinene, bisabolene oxide 1, limonene expoxide, bisabolene oxide, alfa-pinene epoxide, neoiso-menthol, alfa-terpineol]. Herba Hungarica. 24(1): 27-29. 1 ref.

15. Bauch, J.; Schweers, W.; Berndt, H. 1974. Lignification during heartwood formation: comparative study of rays and bordered pit membranes in coniferous woods. Holzforschung. 28(3): 86-91. 18 refs. German.

A comparative study was made of the lignification of the walls of ray parenchyma cells and membranes of bordered pits in specimens of Pinus sylvestris, P. strobus, Larix decidua, and Juniperus virginiana using light microscopy, histochemical tests, micro-autoradiography, and UV microspectrophotometry. It was shown that lignification in ray parenchyma cell walls of pines of the subgenus Haploxylon may occur during heartwood formation. In other species investigated, lignification of these cells occurred at the cambial zone. Incrustation of pit membranes by polyphenols also occurs during heartwood formation.

16. Baxter, D.V. 1954. Some resupinate polypores from the region of the Great Lakes. XXVI. Michigan Academy of Science. 40: 91-108. 8 refs.

Lists the polypores in eastern and northern plant associations in which the following species are dominant: (1) Populus spp. (chieflyP. tacamahaca), (2) Populus spp. (chiefly P. deltoides), (3) Picea mariana, (4) Pinus banksiana, (5) Pinus resinosa, (6) Liriodendron tulipifera and L. tulipifera /Quercus alba, (7) Quercus montana, (8) Quercus stellata / Q. marilandica, (9) Juniperus virginiana, (10) Betula nigra /Platanus occidentalis, (11) Chamaecyparis thyoides, (12) Taxodium distichum/Nyssa aquatica /Liquidambar styraciflua, (13) Pinus serotina, (14) Quercus nigra/Liquidambar styraciflua, and (15) Quercus virginiana /Sabal palmetto. An account is also included of Poria vaillantii, a species found in North America mainly on greenhouse benches.

17. Belling, A.J. 1987. A comparison of morphological characteristics of Chamaecyparis thyoides, Thuja occidentalis and Juniperus virginiana. In: Lademan, A.D., ed. 1st Atlantic white cedar wetlands symposium; 1984 October; Woods Hole, MA. Boulder, CO: Westview Press: 231-240.

18. Bessey, C.E.; Webber, H.J. 1890. Grasses and forage plants, and the catalogue of plants. Report of the Botanist, Nebraska State Board Agricultural Report for 1889. Lincoln, NE: State Journal Company, Printers: 37-43.

19. Bifoss, C.G. 1947. The water conducting capacity and growth habits of Juniperus horizontalis Moench and Juniperus virginiana L. Ecology. 28(3): 281-289.

A series of tests on the water conductivity and measurements of the tracheids of stems of Juniperus horizontalis and J. virginiana yielded the following facts: (1) No significant difference exists between the specific conductivity of these two species when taken from approximately the same habitat. Therefore, the creeping habit of J. horizontalis apparently has no direct relation to the specific water-conductivity of its stem. (2) The values for specific water-conductivity of both species are definitely low, and accordingly the dimensions of the tracheids and their lumen areas as seen in transverse view are also small. The deviations are negligibly small and compensatingly distributed. (3) The growth rate, as determined from transverse sections, varies in the two species. In seasons of severe drought it is apparently quite similar in both species, while under more favorable conditions J. virginiana grows much faster.

20. Blake, S.F. 1910. Note on Juniperus horizontalis and J. virginiana. Rhodora. 12: 218.

21. Brett, W.J.; Singer, A.C. 1970. Long term chlorophyll fluctuation in an evergreen - Juniperus virginiana. Indiana Academy of Science. 80: 95.

Concentrations of chlorophyll a and b were determined in 1g of leaf material taken from a mature tree at weekly intervals over the period November 1967 to October 1969. A multiple regression analysis was made to determine the relations between chlorophyll concentrations and temperature, precipitation, cloud cover, and dry weight, and the results are briefly discussed.

22. Brett, W.J.; Singer, A.C. 1973. Chlorophyll concentration in leaves of Juniperus virginiana L., measured over a 2-year period. American Midland Naturalist. 90(1): 194-200. 17 refs.

Significant positive correlations were found between the concentrations of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, and between chlorophyll and dry weight; and negative regressions of chlorophyll on temperature and on total radiation. Seasonal differences are discussed.

23. Burt, L.B. 1939. The bearing of Zalenski's law on conifer leaves. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 42: 113-121.

Investigations on leaves of Abies concolor, Juniperus virginiana, Picea pungens, Pinus banksiana, P. laricio, P. strobus, P. sylvestris, and Thuja orientalis showed that photosynthetic cells decreased in size and increased in frequency from the basal to the apical parts. The stomatal frequency increased in the same direction. This bears out the observations made by Zalenski and others on plants in general.

24. Butler, D.R.; Walsh, S.J. 1988. The use of eastern redcedar in a tree-ring study in Oklahoma. Prairie Naturalist. 20(1): 47-56.

Growth rings from Juniperus virginiana were examined from 10 trees at each of three sites distributed along an ecotonal transect in west-central Oklahoma. Tree rings were examined to determine the utility of eastern redcedar as a source of surrogate climatic data. False rings were common, and some were correlative amongst the three study sites. In spite of a westward-increasing tendency of partial false rings, the combination of correlative true annual rings, correlative false rings, and fire scars provided some useful data for identifying the presence of past droughts on the Great Plains.

25. Chadwick, L.C. 1946. Seeds of redcedar. American Nurseryman. 83(9): 10.

The factors responsible for delayed germination of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) seed are the waxy coat and a resting condition of the embryo. The waxy coat can be removed by soaking seeds for several hours in alcohol, or by pouring warm water over the seeds and bringing it to the boil, repeating the operation twice. In order to overcome the resting condition of the embryo, seed should be stratified from about the middle of December to the middle of March, and then sown in well-prepared seedbeds of sandy soil.

26. Chandler, R.F. 1939. The calcium content of the foliage of forest trees. Rep. 228. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, Cornell Agricultural Experiment Station. 15 p.

The seasonal trends in the calcium content of the foliage of Fagus grandifolia, Magnolia acuminata, Populus tremuloides, Juniperus virginiana, and Pinus strobus, were studied. In all cases the calcium content, expressed either on a percentage or on an absolute-amount basis, was found to increase progressively throughout the growing season. The calcium content of the foliage of evergreen trees increased throughout the growing season but remained fairly constant during the winter months. The longer the foliage of a single species remained on the tree, the higher was its calcium content. The calcium content of mature foliage of 27 forest trees was determined and they were grouped accordingly: (1) Species averaging more than 2.0 percent of calcium in their foliage - tulip poplar, redcedar, basswood, black locust, mockernut hickory, bitternut hickory, white cedar, hophornbeam, trembling aspen, white ash, and black cherry. (2) Species whose foliage contained from 1.0 to 2.0 percent of calcium - shagbark hickory, American elm, sugar maple, Norway spruce, white oak, red oak, yellow birch, chestnut oak, white pine, and balsam fir. (3) Species whose foliage contained less than 1.0 percent of calcium - red maple, red pine, hemlock, beech, scotch pine, and red spruce.

27. Chappelle, E.W.; Williams, D.L. 1987. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) from plant foliage. IEEE Transactions of Geoscience and Remote Sensing. GE-25(6): 726-736. 25 refs.

LIF spectra were measured from herbaceous dicotyledons (soybeans, sugar beet, tobacco), monocotyledons (maize, wheat, rice, barley), conifers (Juniperus virginiana, Pinus strobus, P. taeda, Picea glauca), broadleaves (Quercus rubra, Acer rubrum, Carya ovata) and two algae. All the plant types could be identified by their spectral characteristics. Trees differed from other groups by the presence of a fluorescent band at 525 nm. Conifers differed from all other groups by the absence of a band at 685 nm. Needles of Picea glauca exposed to an inhibitor of photosynthesis showed a fluorescent band at 685 nm. Differences in LIF spectra that could be related to tree vigor were found in needles of Picea rubens from an area known to receive acid rain. Changes in LIF spectra were also found in maize plants subjected to nutrient stress and in cotton plants subjected to drought stress.

28. Choong, E.T.; Fogg, P.J.1968. Moisture movement in six wood species. Forest Products Journal. 18(5): 66-70. 6 refs.

Reports drying and sorption tests on small sapwood and heartwood samples of timber of widely different permeability (Quercus sp., Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Pinus sp., Juniperus virginiana, Sequoia sempervirens) to elucidate the mechanism of moisture movement. Other variables examined were specific gravity, grain direction, and sample thickness. It is concluded that movement of both vapor and bound water occurs at all moisture content ranges, the former predominating only longitudinally and at low moisture content. Movement is similar in sapwood and heartwood, but greater radially than tangentially, indicating that voids, including pits, have little effect. The results defied complete interpretation; they did not conform to Fick's laws of diffusion.

29. Cochran, K.D. 1992. Evaluation of form and growth characteristics of Juniperus cultivars at the Secrest Arboretum. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. 140: 32-34. 7 refs.

Sixty-five ornamental cultivars of Juniperus (embracing J. horizontalis, J. sabina, J. conferta, J. communis, J. procumbens, J. chinensis, J. davurica, J. virginiana, J. scopulorum, and J. squamata) were evaluated. Form was categorized as disk, mound, ovoid, sphere, cylinder, ellipsoid, cone, or pyramid. Growth was designated according to branching habit: procumbent, horizontal, arched, ascending, fastigiate, or convergent. All plants were also evaluated for growth characteristics of open or closed outline.

30. Coile, T.S. 1933. Soil reaction and forest types in the Duke Forest. Ecology. 14: 323-333.

Eastern redcedar was found to occur in small pure stands within other forest types but was seldom found in the overstory on extensive areas. Eastern redcedar tended to raise the pH of normally acidic soils.

31. Collingwood, G.H. 1938. Eastern red cedar. American Forests. 44: 30-31.

Describes the occurrence, growth, characteristics, wood qualities, utilization, and pests.

32. Corliss, C.D. 1983. Juniper plant--Corcorcor variety Juniperus virginiana, evergreen conifer, symmetrical and conical. U.S. Pat. Plant. 5041. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent Trademark Office. 4 p.

33. Cregg, B.M. 1992. Leaf area estimation of mature foliage of Juniperus. Forest Science. 38(1): 61-67. 15 refs.

The ratio of total surface area to projected leaf area was determined for mature foliage samples collected at three canopy heights from three half-sib Juniperus virginiana families and one J. scopulorum family growing on a farm in southeast Nebraska. The relation of projected leaf area to leaf dry weight and volume was also determined. Total surface area was estimated to be 3.2X the projected surface area. This relation was independent of seed source or crown position. Projected leaf area can be satis-factorily estimated from weight or volume. However, these relations differed by crown position or seed source. These results indicate that leaf area of mature juniper foliage may be estimated through measurement of projected surface area. The leaf area of large samples may be estimated by determining the appropriate specific leaf area or surface-to-volume ratios.

34. Cutter, B.E.; Guyette, R.P. 1990. A note on sap pH in eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.). Wood and Fiber Science. 22(1): 109-112. 6 refs.

Twelve eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) trees were sampled for the sap pH of the sapwood at three locations along the bole and one location on the roots. Soil pH measurements were taken at each tree site. Sap pH was positively correlated with soil pH. A regression model using mean soil pH as the independent variable accounted for 71 percent of the variation of the mean sap pH. There was a decreasing gradient in sap pH from crown to stump.

35. Cutter, B.E.; Guyette, R.P. 1993. Anatomical, chemical, and ecological factors affecting tree species choice in dendrochemistry studies. Journal of Environmental Quality. 22(3): 611-619.

Recently, element concentrations in tree rings have been used to monitor metal contamination, fertilization, and the effects of acid precipitation on soils. This has stimulated interest in which tree species may be suitable for use in studies of long-term trends in environmental chemistry. Potential radial translocation of elements across ring boundaries can be a confounding factor in assessing environmental change. Thus, the selection of species to minimize radial translocation of elements can be critical to the success of dendrochemical research. Criteria for the selection of species with characteristics favorable for dendrochemical analysis are categorized into (i) habitat-based factors, (ii) xylem-based factors, and (iii) element-based factors. Species with a wide geographic range and ecological amplitude provide an advantage in calibration and better controls on the effects of soil chemistry on element concentrations. The most important xylem-based criteria are heartwood moisture content, permeability, and the nature of the sapwood-heartwood transition. The element of experimental interest is important in determining which tree species will be suitable because all elements are not equally mobile or detectable in the xylem. Ideally, the tree species selected for dendrochemical study will be long-lived, grow on a wide range of sites over a large geographic distribution, have a distinct heartwood with a low number of rings in the sapwood, a low heartwood moisture content, and have low radial permeability. Recommended temperate zone North American species include white oak (Quercus alba L.), post oak (Q. stellata Wangenh.), eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb.) and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.). In addition, species such as bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata Engelm. syn. longaeva), old-growth redwood (Sequoia sempervirens Endl.), and giant sequoia (S. gigantea Deene) may be suitable for local purposes.

36. Czeczuga, B. 1987. Different rhodoxanthin contents in the leaves of gymnosperms grown under various light intensities. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 15(5): 531-533. 21 refs.

Rhodoxanthin and total carotenoid contents are tabulated for needles of 15 gymnosperm species from sun exposed and shaded sites. More rhodoxanthin was present in sun exposed needles than in shaded needles.

37. Davlenbaev, K.K. 1972. Features of the flowering and fruiting of Juniperus virginiana. Vestnik Karakalpakskogo Filiala. 2(48): 55-59. Russian.

Gives data on the phenology of flowering and fruiting of J. virginiana in various botanical gardens and parks in Soviet Central Asia.

38. Djavanshir, K.; Fechner, G.H. 1975. Pollen germination and pollen tube growth of Juniperus from autumn and winter collections. Silvae Genetica. 24(1): 26-29. 17 refs.

Branches of J. virginiana were collected at 10-day intervals from October to March at Fort Collins, Colorado, U.S.A., and forced in water to encourage dehiscence of the male strobili. Pollen shedding began with the collection made on November 10. The periods of predehiscence, dehiscence, and pollen shedding shortened gradually from November to March, and pollen germination percentage increased over the same period. Germination percentage and pollen-tube growth of the forced pollen were much higher than the corresponding figures for pollen extracted from the strobili at the time of collection. Storage for up to 3 months did not affect germination percentage or pollen-tube growth of either the forced or extracted pollen. Germination of viable pollen occurred within the 3 to 5 days of culturing, and the pollen tubes reached maximum length in 16 or 17 days.

39. Djavanshir, K.; Fechner, G.H. 1976. Epicotyl and hypocotyl germination of eastern redcedar and Rocky Mountain juniper. Forest Science. 22(3): 261-266. 8 refs.

Seeds of (a) Juniperus virginiana and (b) J. scopulorum were subjected to various treatments and germinated at 18o/8o C on damp paper. The treatments included removal of the seed tip or the seed base (hilum), extraction of embryos followed by chilling at 5-6o C, soaking of all or part of the seed in concentrated H2SO4, and cold storage of seed at -20o C. Seeds of (a) were also soaked in lukewarm water, dilute growth regulator, or acid solutions. Chilling of the seed was required for hypocotyl development, but not for epicotyl development. Softening of the seed coat by H2SO4 for 35 and 120 minutes for (a) and (b), respectively, increased the rate of germination provided that the carbonized surface was removed. Prolonged soaking or seed-base excision, two methods that remove the hilum, caused some abnormal germination in which only epicotyl development occurred; these epicotyls developed into normal seedlings under artificial conditions. It is concluded that slow germination is due to a combination of dormancy and seed-coat impermeability, and it is suggested that artificially germinated seedlings be transferred to peat moss/ vermiculite in the greenhouse.

40. Dupu, M. 1956. Some data on the elasticity of the wood of some exotic species grown in Rumania. Revista Padurilor. 9: 601-604. 5 refs. Rumanian.

Gives values of modulus of elasticity (static bending, compression parallel, tension parallel, and torsion) for Pseudotsuga taxifolia, Taxodium distichum, Juniperus virginiana, Carya ovata, C. glabra, C. laciniosa and C. pecan, grown in Rumania.

41. Engle, D.M.; Kulbeth, J.D. 1992. Growth of crowns of eastern redcedar. In: Bidwell, T.G.; Titus, D.; Cassels, D., eds. Range research highlights, 1983-1991. Circ. E. 905. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service: 14.

42. Engle, D.M.; Kulbeth, J.D. 1992. Growth dynamics of crowns of eastern redcedar at 3 locations in Oklahoma. Journal of Range Mangement. 45(3): 301-305. 23 refs.

Encroachment of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) is extensive in tallgrass prairie in the central U.S.A. in the absence of fire. The relation of crown area and height with tree age was examined in 1987 by tree ring analysis of eastern redcedar trees from sites in western, central, and eastern Oklahoma. Tree height and crown area as a function of age were different at the three locations. Trees in the 28- to 29-year-old age class ranged in height from 6.2 m on the western site to 8.3 m on the eastern site. The oldest trees at all sites were still actively growing. The trees on the eastern location were younger when they grew beyond the height (2 m) at which they would effectively be killed by fire. This implies that burning should be more frequent in the east to provide similar protection from eastern redcedar invasion under the same rate of invasion. Crown area as a function of tree age was not as similar as tree height among the sites. Crown area of 28-year-old trees ranged from 15 m2 on the central Oklahoma loamy prairie site to 40 m2 on the eastern site. It is suggested that the smaller crown area of trees in central Oklahoma may reflect genetic differences. The reduction in forage production associated with eastern redcedar and the efficacy of prescribed burning for controlling eastern redcedar would change more rapidly as trees aged on the eastern location than on the other sites.

43. Fassett, N.C. 1943. The validity of Juniperus virginiana var. crebra. American Journal of Botany. 30: 469-477.

By means of photographs of more than 700 individual trees of Juniperus virginiana, the author has assembled data on the crown height / width ratio of this species in 19 American states. The narrow-crowned variety, J. virginiana var. crebra , is found chiefly in an area stretching from eastern Pennsylvania to southern Maine, and in a second area following a series of moraines from northern Indiana to southeastern Wisconsin. It also occurs sporadically in central New York, Tennessee, western Indiana, and eastern Missouri. Examination of the leaves of the species shows that the degree of acuteness is of no taxonomic value in distinguishing var. crebra; and although the seeds of var. crebra are rather less conspicuously pitted than are those of the typical broad-crowned tree, this characteristic is not sufficiently marked to be of use in diagnosis.

44. Fassett, N.C. 1944. Juniperus virginiana, J. horizontalis and J. scopulorum. I. The specific characters. II. Hybrid swarms of J. virginiana and J. scopulorum. III. Possible hybridization of J. horizontalis and J. scopulorum. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 71(4): 475-483.

A study based on mass collections made throughout much of the ranges of Juniperus virginiana, J. horizontalis, and J. scopulorum, as well as on herbarium material, shows that these three species are always clearly recognizable on a number of characters, except when two species grow together. It also shows that the variation within each species is often more conspicuous than, but never as constant as, the variation that separates species. Where Juniperus virginiana grows by itself, and where J. scopulorum grows by itself, each species retains pure specific characteristics, except in areas in the western part of the range of J. virginiana where certain tendencies toward J. scopulorum suggest an ancient incursion of that species. Where the ranges of the two species meet, all recombinations of the characters of each occur in individuals of one colony.

45. Fassett, N.C. 1945. Juniperus virginiana, J. horizontalis and J. scopulorum .- IV. Hybrid swarms of J. virginiana and J. horizontalis. V. Taxonomic treatment. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 72: 379-384.

Except in the regions where Juniperus virginiana and J. horizontalis overlap, the two species are quite distinct in several characters, including the following: (1) The epidermal cells of the leaves of J. virginiana average 9-12Ê in width, those of J. horizontalis average 13-19Ê. (2) The leaf tips of J. virginiana are rarely apiculate, those of J. horizontalis are always apiculate. (3) J. virginiana is an erect tree, and J. horizontalis is a creeping shrub. (4) In J. virginiana not more than a third of the peduncles of the female cones are curved, and in J. horizontalis half or more are curved. In the Driftless Area of Wisconsin where the two species grow together in the same colony, various intermediates occur, the most common is that described as J. virginiana var. ambigens, which combines the creeping habit of J. horizontalis with the fruit of J. virginiana. Part V includes two maps showing the approximate range of the three main species (J. virginiana, J. scopulorum, and J. horizontalis) and their varieties. A key is given for the identification of J. virginiana, J. virginiana var. crebra, J. virginiana var. ambigens, J. scopulorum, J. scopulorum var. columnaris var. nov., J. scopulorum var. patens, and J. horizontalis.

46. Fechner, G.H. 1976. Controlled pollination in eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) and Rocky Mountain juniper (J. scopulorum). Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-26. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 24-34. 15 refs.

Preliminary results from studies at Fort Collins, Colorado, indicate that wind pollination is less reliable than controlled pollination in obtaining sound seed set in J. virginiana. On the basis of fruit set, sound seed set, and first-year gametophyte development, it appears that hybridization between the two species is possible.

47. Ferguson, E.R. 1970. Eastern redcedar: an annotated bibliography. Res. Pap. SO-64. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. 21 p.

Lists more than 300 publications on Juniperus virginiana with an author index.

48. Flake, R.H.; Turner, B.L. 1974. Volatile constituents, especially terpenes, and their utility and potential as taxonomic characters in populational studies (Juniperus virginiana). Chemical Botany Classification, 25th Nobel symposium: 123-128.

49. Flake, R.H.; VonRudloff, E.; Turner, B.L. 1969. Quantitative study of clinical variation in Juniperus virginiana using terpenoid data. Easton, PA: National Academy of Science. 64: 487-494. 17 refs.

Nine populations of J. virginiana were sampled at 150-mile intervals along a 1,500-mile transect from northeast Texas to Washington, DC, and analyses were made of their terpenoids and the variations in the components. The resulting data show that these populations cluster clinally from northeast to southwest. The more homogeneous populations occur in the Appalachian region, and the more divergent ones are found in progressively more distant regions as measured along the transect from northeast towards the southwest. No biochemical evidence was found to support the theory that hybridization with J. ashei might cause this variability.

50. Flake, R.H.; VonRudloff, E.; Turner, B.L. 1973. Confirmation of a clinal pattern of chemical differentiation in Juniperus virginiana from terpenoid data obtained in successive years. Phytochemistry. 6: 215-228.

51. Flake, R.H.; Urbatsch, L.; Turner, B.L. 1978. Chemical documentation of allopatric introgression in Juniperus. Systematic Botany. 3(2): 129-144. 27 refs.

Chemical data were obtained for volatile leaf extracts from an array of populations of J. virginiana and J. scopulorum extending along a transect from near St. Louis, Missouri, to the vicinity of Missoula, Montana. Analysis of the data strongly suggests that the variation found in J. virginiana across the Missouri River basin is due to allopatric introgression from its more western cohort, J. scopulorum.

52. Frey-Wyssling, A. 1938. On the origin of resin pockets. Holzforschung. 1: 329-332. German.

Evidence is put forward in support of the view that the resin pockets of larch and spruce originate as wind shakes in the cambial region of the stem, the cavities thus formed becoming filled with resin from the ruptured radial ducts. Similar shakes (not attributable to seasoning) occur in Juniperus virginiana, but in that species no resin enters the cavities and no wound tissue is produced. It is suggested that the formation of wound tissue in larch and spruce may be excited by the resin itself, and some confirmation of this is afforded by experiments with potato tubers. Pockets were cut in the tubers and resin was injected into some of the cavities; wound tissue formed in the resin-filled cavities, while the tissues of empty cavities remained unaltered. Resin pockets are not to be confused with cankerous resin-galls, which arise in other ways.

53. Gabisova, A.I. 1984. Winter hardiness of conifers in Northern Tajikistan. Byulleten Glavnogo Botanicheskogo Sada. 131: 51-54. 4 refs. Russian.

A report on a 20-year-old collection at the Leninabad Botanical Garden, with tabulated data on the growth of 27 species and 8 varieties surviving in 1981 (out of a planted total of 69 species and 13 varieties). Many species were intolerant of the dry climate and saline soils. Many others were lost in the winter of 1968/69 (minimum temperature -22.6o C). Frost damage during that and other severe winters is discussed. The most promising ornamental species were characterized by rapid regeneration of crowns damaged by frost, including Cupressus sempervirens var. umbilicata, Juniperus virginiana, etc.; of these, the fastest growing were Pinus eldarica and P. pityusa var. stankewiczii.

54. Gao, X.P. 1982. Effects of chlorine on respiration of plants. Plant Physiology Commission Zhiwushenglixue Tongxun. 2: 12-14. 6 refs. Chinese.

After chlorine fumigation, respiratory intensities of Cedrus deodara, Juniperus chinensis and Cupressus lusitanica increased by over 100 percent as compared with controls, while respiration in Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus harlandii, Cupressus funebris, Euonymus japonicus, Thuja orientalis, and Juniperus virginiana increased by 20-60 percent. On the contrary, the respiratory intensity of Viburnum awabuki var. (odoratissimum) decreased to 40 percent. Response of leaves to Cl2 varied with leaf age: after treatment for 4 hours, the respiratory intensities of new, young, and old leaves of Cupressus lusitanica increased by 29, 138, and 179 percent, respectively; in J. chinensis, respiration showed no significant difference (n.s.d.) in new and young leaves but accelerated in old leaves. Increases in leaf respiration were directly related to the severity of injuries caused to the plants by fumigation. Resistant leaves of J. chinensis whose respiration was n.s.d. were injured only slightly, whereas the older leaves of Cedrus deodara and J. chinensis, in which respiration significantly increased, were severely injured. Similar effects were found in B. hardlandii and L. lucidum.

55. George, M.F.; Carrasquilla, M.L. 1979. Freezing avoidance in male cones of Juniperus virginiana. Horticultural Science. 14(3): 425.

Freezing avoidance was evaluated by differential thermal analysis, and results were compared with similar properties of living wood cells of Quercus velutina.

56. Ginter-Whitehouse, D.L.; Hinckley, T.M.; Pallardy, S.G. 1983. Spatial and temporal aspects of water relations of three tree species with different vascular anatomy. Forest Science. 29(2): 317-329. 35 refs.

Root and leaf water potential, and leaf conductance of two trees each of Quercus alba, Juniperus virginiana, and Juglans nigra were recorded in May-October 1979, in a second-growth, mixed broad-leaved stand in Missouri. Measurements were also made of soil moisture (for calculation of water potential), photosynthetic photon flux density, air temperatures, and precipitation. The main factors leading to tree water deficits were decreasing soil moisture and daily evaporative demand. Periods of drought were associated with declining leaf water potential and leaf conductance in all species, but J. nigra maintained higher predawn and solar noon leaf water potentials and leaf conductance than the other species. It was suggested that these differences were related to deeper rooting and early leaf abscission in J. nigra, which would be likely to result in water conservation and greater water supply to individual leaves. Flow resistance between soil and leaves, and water potential gradients between root and crown were greater in Juniperus virginiana than in the others. This was largely attributed to high resistance presented by the xylem, in which only the tracheids permitted axial water flow.

57. Goryaev, M.I.; Dzhalilov, D.R. 1959. Analysis of the essential oil of Kazakh Juniper. Trudy Instituta Khimicheskikh Nauk Akademiya Nauk Kazakhskoi SSR. 54: 21. Russian.

Gives details of the essential oils (yields, chemical characteristics, etc.) of Juniperus communis, J. pseudosabina, J. sabina, J. semiglobosa, J. seravschanica, J. sibirica, J. talassica, and J. turkestanica from Kazakhstan and Central (Soviet) Asia. Excellent results were also obtained for J. virginiana cultivated in these regions.

58. Grigor'ev, A.G. 1986. Bioecological features of gymnosperms introduced into the northern Crimea. Byulleten Glavnogo Botanicheskogo Sada. 143: 3-8. 6 refs. Russian.

Few conifers are planted in this semiarid region. Data are tabulated on the growth, phenology, and resistance to frost and drought of 34 species and 15 cultivars or varieties up to 22 years old, planted on a clay-loam chernozem site at the Steppe Division (20 km N. of Simferopol) of the Nikita State Botanical Garden. Species recommended for landscape use in this region include Juniperus virginiana, Picea abies, P. montigena, P. pungens, Pinus pallasiana (P. nigra var. caramanica), and P. sylvestris.

59. Gurina, T.F. 1991. Seed-bearing of some species of conifers on the Mangyshlak Peninsula. Byulleten Glavnogo Botanicheskogo Sada. 159: 97-99. 2 refs. Russian.

Studies were made on plantings of Platycladus orientalis (Thuja orientalis), Juniperus virginiana, and J. sabina 16-21 years old on the Mangyshlak Peninsula, on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea (Kazakhstan). Data are tabulated on flowering phenology, seed bearing, and 1,000-seed weight. In these conditions, seed bearing starts much earlier than elsewhere, e.g., at 3 years in T. orientalis.

60. Guyette, R.P.; Cutter, B.E.; Henderson, G.S. 1992. Inorganic concentrations in the wood of eastern redcedar grown on different sites. Wood and Fiber Science. 24(2): 133-140. 28 refs.

Samples of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) growing in Missouri on soils derived from five parent materials (rhyolite, dolomite, limestone, sandstone, and chert) were analyzed for concentrations of inorganics in sapwood and heartwood. Eighteen elements were detected in the sapwood using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Neutron activation analysis was also used to determine concentrations of an additional six elements in heartwood. No difference was found between results obtained by the two analytical methods. Conventional wet chemistry techniques were used to determine nitrogen and sulfur concentrations in some samples.

61. Hall, M.T. 1952. A hybrid swarm in Juniperus. Evolution. 6(4): 347-366. 10 refs.

Discusses a hybrid swarm between J. ashei and J. virginiana from Platt National Park in the Arbuckle Mountains of Oklahoma.

62. Hall, M.T. 1952. Variation and hybridization in Juniperus. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 39(1): 1-64. 63 refs.

The existence of hybrid swarms between Juniperus ashei and J. virginiana led to an investigation of the populations, in order to find the extent and nature of the influence of the two species upon each other. A study of morphological variations was made, and an index was drawn up based on certain morphological characteristics. The index values are plotted on a map, and show the geographical distribution of the population characters. J. ashei influences J. virginiana by introgression throughout the Ozark Plateau, and probably as far east as the Tennessee River in the vicinity of the 36th parallel. The reciprocal influences are not so common, or so extreme. The introgression was possibly influenced by the fluctuations of the ranges of the two species, following on climatic fluctuations during and after the glacial periods. Differentation in J. virginiana as a species is also discussed.

63. Hall, M.T.; Mukherjee, A.; Crowley, W.R., Jr. 1973. Chromosome counts in cultivated junipers. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. 54(3): 369-376. 6 refs.

Counts are tabulated and discussed for 20 taxa of the sections Oxycedrus (Juniperus communis var., J. formosana and J. rigida) and Sabina (var. of J. chinensis, J. horizontalis, J. scopulorum, J. squamata, and J. virginiana). Most of the taxa were diploid (2n = 22), but 3 of the 12 examined in the section Sabina were tetraploid (2n = 44).

64. Harper, R.M. 1912. The diverse habitats of the eastern redcedar and their interpretation. Torreya. 12(7): 145-154.

Eastern redcedar occurs in a variety of habitats and is regarded by some authors as almost indifferent to environmental conditions. Its presence and absences in major ecological regions and the impact of fires on its distribution are discussed.

65. Hawley, F.M. 1937. Relationship of southern cedar growth to precipitation and runoff. Ecology. 18: 398-405.

In eastern Tennessee, cedar growth was more closely correlated with annual precipitation than with stream runoff.

66. Henderson, L.T.; Koppe, T.F.; Schoenike, R.E. 1979. Ten-year evaluation of a seed source study of eastern redcedar in South Carolina. Tree Planters Notes. 30(3): 3-6. 5 refs.

Ten-year-old Juniperus virginiana grown from seed from 20 sources in 18 states in the central and eastern U.S.A. were examined and measured. Significant differences were found in survival, growth, disease resistance, crown ratio, foliage density, and winter foliage color. Local sources and those from adjacent states are recommended for planting in South Carolina.

67. Hilton, R.J. 1978. Root growth in the Guelph rhizotron. In: Riedacker, A.; Gagnaire-Michard, J., eds. Proceedings symposium: Physiologie des racines et symbioses; 1978 September 11-15; Nancy, France. Comptes-rendus: 135-142. 12 refs.

Thirty-two Juniperus virginiana trees were grown in individual compartments in the rhizotron, in which soil treatments to give varying degrees of compaction and restriction of surface permeability were imposed. After 2 years, soil atmosphere components, bulk density, and numbers of new roots emerging did not differ regardless of soil treatment. There was a significant east to west position effect on root emergence but not on growth of aerial organs. Studies of several woody species showed two major flushes of new roots, one peaking in late spring or early summer and the other in late summer or early autumn, the peaks usually occurring during periods when growth of aerial parts is relatively slow.

68. Hinesley, L.E. 1988. Water relations of cut eastern redcedar Christmas trees. Horticultural Science. 23(3): 589-591. 12 refs.

Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) Christmas trees were cut in early December from a plantation near Raleigh, North Carolina. The trees were taken indoors and dried to different xylem pressure potentials (PSI) before the stems were recut and placed in water. Trees dried rapidly, but readily rehydrated even at PSI as low as -6.5 to -7.0 MPa. There was little foliage loss during drying, but trees dried to PSI of Û-4.9 MPa defoliated heavily after rehydration. There was a linear relation between PSI and twig moisture content.

69. Hinesley, L.E.; Pharr, D.M.; Snelling, L.K.; Funderburk, S.R. 1992. Foliar raffinose and sucrose in four conifer species: relationship to seasonal temperature. Horticultural Science. 27(5): 852-855.

Foliar raffinose and sucrose concentrations in eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.), eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), Leyland cypress (xCupressocyparis leylandii Dallim.), and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana L.) were measured monthly over 2 years. During cold weather, foliage of white pine and redcedar contained higher concentrations of raffinose and sucrose than did Leyland cypress and Virginia pine. Raffinose concentrations were highest during winter and were best correlated with the frequency of occurrence of daily minima less than or equal to 1.7o C during the 30 days before sampling. Sucrose concentrations, which also reached maximum levels during the winter, were best correlated with the frequency of occurrence of daily minima less than or equal to 7.2o C in the prior 30 days. Sucrose concentrations were relatively high during fall and spring. Raffinose and sucrose concentrations increased in response to recurring low temperature, with correlations highest for raffinose.

70. Holthuijzen, A.M.A.; Sharik, T.L. 1984. Seed longevity and mechanisms of regeneration of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) in SW Virginia. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 111(2): 153-158. 31 refs.

71. Huang, M.R.; Chen, D.M.; Shi, J.S. 1981. A preliminary study on the relation between the isozymes pattern and the sex of four conifer species. Journal of the Nanjing Technical College of Forest Products. 3: 141-146. 4 refs. Chinese.

Peroxidase and esterase patterns of mature needles of male and female individuals were studied in four species: Sabina (Juniperus virginiana), S. (J. chinensis), J. rigida, and J. communis. There were clear differences in numbers and patterns of isozymes between the males and females of each species.

72. Hugo, N.R. 1990. Eastern red--the cedar that isn't. American Forests. 96(9/10): 26-28, 65, 67-68.

73. Jack, J.G. 1893. The fruitification of Juniperus. Botanical Gazette. 18: 369-375.

Juniperus virginiana is simply annual-fruited, flowering about the latter part of April and maturing its fruit in the autumn of the same year.

74. Jackson, L.W.R. 1952. Radial growth of forest trees in the Georgia Piedmont. Ecology. 33(3): 336-341. 10 refs.

A comparison of the radial growth of 21 species during a single season showed wide variation in the dates of beginning and relative rapidity of growth, duration of most rapid growth, and date when seasonal growth ended. These data are given graphically for Pinus echinata, P. taeda, P. caribaea, P. palustris, P. ponderosa, Taxodium distichum, Juniperus virginiana, Ulmus alata, U. parvifolia, Cornus florida, Diospyros virginiana, Acer rubrum, Liquidambar styraciflua, Carya tomentosa, Liriodendron tulipifera, Castanea dentata, Fagus grandifolia, Quercus alba, Q. stellata, Q. borealis, and Q. falcata.

75. Kaeiser, M. 1950. Microscopic anatomy of the wood of three species of Junipers. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science. 43: 46-50. 6 refs.

Presents, in summarized and tabulated form, data that can be used as criteria for distinguishing the following species: Juniperus virginiana, J. ashei, J. monosperma, J. virginiana X J. ashei, and J. procera.

76. Kakihara, M. 1958. On the stand composition and the standing volume table of the artificial pencil cedar (Juniperus virginiana) forest. Reports Kyushu University Forests. 1958-9: 29-34. Japanese.

Studies were made in the Ino National Forest. Distribution of trees by d.b.h. and tree height was normal. Increment curves for height, d.b.h., and volume, and a volume table are given. J. virginiana showed a more pronounced taper than Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa.

77. Kent, A.H. 1900. Juniperus virginiana. In: Veitch's manual of the coniferae. London: James Veitch and Sons: 192-196.

Presents a botanical description and description of the native range in the United States.

78. Khoshoo, T.N. 1959. Polyploidy in gymnosperms. Evolution. 13(1): 24-39. 97 refs.

Reviews the subjects of polyploid seedlings in the progeny of diploid species (recorded for Pinus densiflora, P. radiata, Picea abies), polyploid trees in diploid species (so far recorded once each for Larix decidua and Juniperus virginiana) and polyploid species. The various hypotheses to explain the rarity of polyploidy in gymnosperms are reviewed.

79. Kim, S.I. 1988. Taxonomic studies of the genus Juniperus. Journal of the Korean Forestry Society. 77(3): 338-350. 30 refs. Korean.

Reports results of a study based on the morphology and karyotype of J. chinensis (including J. chinensis var. sargentii and four other varieties), J. virginiana, J. rigida, and J. coreana collected in the Korea Republic.

80. King, D.B.; Roberts, E.V.; Winters, R.K. 1949. Forest resources and industries of Missouri. Res. Bull. 452. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station. 89 p.

The greatest concentration of the eastern redcedar-hardwood forest type is in the White River watershed of the southwestern Ozarks, totaling about 49,200 acres or about 3 percent of Missouri's forest area.

81. Kocon, J. 1984. Presence and structure of the wart layer in tracheids of some junipers as visualized in the scanning electron microscope. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae. 53(2): 141-144. 14 refs.

The wart layer was examined in tracheids from the butt, middle, and apex of the stem and from the roots and branches of two species (Juniperus communis and J. saxatilis) and from the butt only of four species (J. sabina, J. virginiana, J. chinensis, and J. squamata). The wart layer was found to be present on the S3 layer of the secondary wall in all sample tracheids, from both spring and summer growths. It is suggested that the wart layer is an integral part of tracheid structure in juniper wood.

82. Kocon, J. 1987. Structure and ultrastructure of warty layer in tracheids of some juniper (Juniperus L.) species as revealed by scanning electron microscope. Folia Forestalia Polonica. 29: 135-139. 14 refs.

83. Krusekopf, H.H. 1963. Forest soil areas in the Ozark region of Missouri. Res. Bull. 818. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station. 28 p.

The upland oak forest type prevails over the entire region, but shortleaf pine and redcedar sometimes are the most important species. Redcedar generally occupies dry uplands that have shallow soil and numerous limestone outcrops. Although redcedar will grow on good soil, it usually is replaced by faster growing species. It is a common invader of glades and old prairie openings.

84. Kuo, M.L.; McGinnes, E.A., Jr. 1973. Variation of anatomical structure of false rings in eastern redcedar. Wood Science. 5(3): 205-210. 8 refs.

Describes a study of within-tree variation of false-ring features in a single tree of Juniperus virginiana in Missouri, having 37 rings at d.b.h. False rings were found in the early- and late-wood zones. Tangential variation of false-ring features was greatest for increments closest to the bark. Longitudinal variation of false-ring features within annual increments was extensive. It ranged from discontinuity of false rings within increments at certain heights to a transition from the classic cellular features of false-ring structure to false rings composed of tangential bands of parenchyma cells, as false-ring structures were traced from the upper to the lower levels within the stem. Possible causes are discussed.

85. Lassoie, J.P.; Dougherty, P.M.; Reich, P.B.; Hinckley, T.M.; Metcalf, C.M.; Dina, S.J. 1983. Ecophysiological investigations of understory eastern redcedar in central Missouri. Ecology. 64(6): 1355-1366. 29 refs.

Juniperus virginiana is a sun-adapted, drought-resistant pioneer species common to pastures, abandoned fields, hedges, and calcareous rock outcrops throughout the eastern USA. In central Missouri, however, it is also a frequent component of the understory in mature oak/hickory (Quercus/Carya) forests, where light intensity is typically less than 10 percent of full sunlight during much of the growing season. This is below the reported optimum for photosynthesis in J. virginiana. An analysis of temporal variations in net photosynthesis, transpiration, and xylem pressure potential, and a study of the environmental factors that control these processes suggested that the competitive survival of understory J. virginiana was due to it being an evergreen conifer in a deciduous forest. The foliage was able to maintain a positive carbon dioxide balance through much of the year, with maximum net photosynthesis occurring when the overstory canopy was leafless.

86. Lee, P.W.; Eom, Y.G. 1984. Scanning electron microscopical study on the compression wood and opposite wood formed in branches of Juniperus virginiana L. Wood Science Technology. 12(4): 47-52. 17 refs.

87. Lev-Yadun, S.; Liphschitz, N. 1989. Sites of first phellogen initiation in conifers. IAWA Bulletin. 10(1): 43-52. 69 refs.

Sites of first phellogen initiation were studied in Pinus halepensis, P. pinea, P. canariensis, Cedrus libani, Cupressus sempervirens, C. macrocarpa, C. funebris, Thuja orientalis, Juniperus oxycedrus, and J. virginiana. The distance from the apex, age, and the tissue from which the first phellogen is initiated were determined. In Pinaceae, the first phellogen arises at a shorter distance from the apex than it does in Cupressaceae. In fast growing leaders or seedlings, suberization appears further from the apex than it does in slow growing branches. The differences between Pinaceae and Cupressaceae are probably related to differences in the contribution of leaf-bearing organs and branches to photosynthesis. These differences represent a compromise between protection by suberization in Pinaceae and an increase in the photosynthetic area in Cupressaceae.

88. Lipa, O.L. 1940. Supplement to the gymnosperms of gardens and parks in the Ukrainian SSR. (Data for the study of the dendroflora of the Ukrainian SSR). Botanicheskii Zhurnal. 1(1): 119-126. Russian.

A supplement to the author's Dendroflora of the Ukrainian S.S.R., I. Conifers, published by the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian S.S.R. in 1939. One hundred new records of trees and shrubs are mentioned, indicating for most the environment, growth data, and growth and fruiting characters. Species dealt with include Ginkgo biloba, Abies sibirica, A. alba, A. balsamea, A. nordmanniana, A. fraseri, A. veitchii, A. concolor, Pseudotsuga taxifolia, Tsuga canadensis, Picea abies, P. orientalis, P. canadensis, P. pungens, P. engelmanni, P. omorica, P. jezoensis, Larix kaempferi, L. sibirica, L. decidua, Pinus contorta, P. ponderosa, P. rigida, P. sibirica, P. excelsa, P. strobus, Thuja occidentalis, T. plicata, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, C. pisifera, Juniperus sabina, J. virginiana, and J. communis.

89. Loudon, J.C. 1838. Juniperus virginiana L., the Virginian juniper, or red cedar. In: The trees and shrubs of Britain. London, UK: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans; 4: 2495-2498.

Describes the characteristics, varieties, geography, history, propagation, uses, and culture of eastern redcedar.

90. Lupe, I.Z.; Indries, R. 1970. The wood density of some of the less common exotic tree species cultivated in Rumania. Industria Lemnului. 21(2): 64-66. 7 refs. Rumanian.

Presents data (with ranges) for the oven-dry density and annual ring width of increment cores taken at d.b.h. from mature specimens of (a) Sequoia gigantea, (b) Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, (c) Juniperus virginiana, and (d) Pinus nigra var. maritima on a good site at Orsova (Banat). The mean density of (a) was 0.30 and 0.34 in two specimens; values for (b), (c), and (d) were normal. The increment data were promising for (a), good for (c) and (d), and relatively poor for (b). Measurements of density only were made on some species for which previous data were unavailable, viz. Aesculus X carnea, 0.47 and 0.55; Tilia X euchlora, 0.50; Corylus colurna, 0.68.

91. Lysova, N.V. 1980. Means of adaptation and hardiness of woody plants in the dry steppe of the Volga region. Byulleten Glavnogo Botanicheskogo Sada. 115: 8-13. 9 refs. Russian.

Gives a general account of observations in the Volgograd arboretum and at Kamyshin in the drought years of 1972 and 1975. Species that survived well in the very severe conditions of 1972 (with dust storms) included junipers (Juniperus communis, J. virginiana), pines (Pinus nigra var. caramanica, P. ponderosa), lindens (Tilia amurensis, T. cordata, T. tomentosa), oak (Quercus robur) and several shrubby species. Data are tabulated for some of the broadleaved species examined (including several Acer spp.), showing leaf anatomical characters and foliar water content in May, July, and August 1972 and 1975, and illustrating the more xeromorphic character and better control of water balance in the successful species.

92. McDermott, R.E.; Fletcher, P.W. 1955. Influence of light and nutrition on color and growth of redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) seedlings. Res. Bull. 587. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station. 15 p. 14 refs.

During the 1953 growing season, 1 + 0 seedlings of J. virginiana were grown under three light intensities, (a) full sunlight, (b) 1/3 sunlight, and (c) 1/10 sunlight, and varying fertilizer levels of N, Ca, P, and K. At the close of the growing season, it was clear that fertilizers did not affect growth or coloration of foliage at any light intensity. Growth responses in (a) and (b) were the same, but (c) resulted in seedlings that were deficient in both height and top/root weight ratio. During the summer, foliage of (a) seedlings was yellow-green, of (b) pure green, and of (c) blue-green. In the autumn, (a) developed a strong anthocyanin pigmentation and (b) developed a pronounced yellow-green, while (c) remained unchanged. It seems evident that the autumnal coloring of J. virginiana is essentially a light phenomenon, though the degree to which red or yellow color is developed is primarily governed by genetic factors.

93. McGinnes, E.A., Jr.; Dingeldein, T.W. 1969. Selected wood properties of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana, L.) grown in Missouri. Res. Bull. 960. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station. 19 p. 6 refs.

Mean moisture content of heartwood of 40 stand-ing trees was 22 percent, with a range of 19-25 per-cent, over a 9-month period. Sapwood moisture con-tent, acetone-extractable content, specific gravity, and growth rate are given, and their influence on the manufacture of novelty items is discussed.

94. McGinnes, E.A., Jr.; Phelps, J.E. 1972. Intercellular spaces in eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.). Wood Science. 4(4): 225-229. 6 refs.

Sections 1 micrometer thick were prepared from the sapwood and heartwood of discs removed from five 24- to 39-year-old trees. Intercellular spaces were found to occupy about 13 percent of the cross-sectional area of the sapwood and 8 percent of the heartwood. When there were only a few spaces, they were generally located near the rays, but when the spaces were frequent they tended towards a random distribution.

95. McGinnes, E.A., Jr.; Kandeel, S.A.; Szopa, P.S. 1969. Frequency and selected anatomical features of included sapwood in eastern redcedar. Wood Science. 2(2): 100-106. 5 refs.

Butt lengths of nine stems, d.b.h. 5-10 inches, all contained many patches of included sapwood extending for 2-10 inches axially and 1-3 growth rings radially; they tended to decrease in number up the tree. The larger ones were often associated with traumatic tissue. In the green condition, included sapwood had a slightly higher moisture content (26-37 percent) than adjacent heartwood (23-30) but much lower than that of normal sapwood (95-170). Separation at the outer boundary of included sapwood commonly occurred, and is attributed to differential moisture-regain properties; it causes damage to lacquer finishes.

96. McGinnes, E.A., Jr.; Szopa, P.S.; Phelps, J.E. 1974. Use of scanning electron microscopy [SEM] in studies of wood charcoal formation. In: Proceedings workshop, SEM & Plant Science. Chicago, IL: IIT Research Institute: 469-476. 6 refs.

Describes studies on samples of Quercus alba, Carya ovata, Pinus echinata, and Juniperus virginiana. SEM techniques plus small-angle X-ray diffraction procedures indicate that shrinkage during charring resulted from a reduction in overall cell and cell-wall dimensions, accompanied by apparent fusion or merging of adjoining cell-walls in both the radial and tangential planes, plus some longitudinal folding.

97. Mamada, S. 1954. Wood study on Juniperus virginiana L. and J. chinensis L. Bulletin of the Tokyo University of Forests. 46: 225-231. 6 refs. Japanese.

Results of strength tests and a comparison with American results for J. virginiana are given in tables.

98. Mark, R. 1965. Tensile stress analysis of the cell walls of coniferous tracheids. In: Cote, W.A., Jr., ed. Proceedings, Cellular ultrastructure of woody plants. New York, NY: Syracuse University Press. 40 p.

Describes the application of the theory of elasticity to determine levels of stress in the various components of the unaltered cell-wall when loaded to failure, using late sapwood of Juniperus virginiana as test wood. Concludes that maximum shear stress is in the S1 layer, that maximum stress is normal to the direction of microfibrils in the S2 radial area; and that the maximum values for a maximum applied tension of 26.47 kg/mm2 reach 12.88 kg in shear, 14.23 kg in normal stress, and 224.85 kg in the chain direction of the structural polysaccharides.

99. Mark, R. 1966. Tensile strength of tracheids of Juniperus virginiana. Forest Products Journal. 16(11): 56.

100. Mathews, A.C. 1939. The morphological and cytological development of the sporophylls and seed of Juniperus virginiana L. Elisha Mitchell Science Society Journal. 55: 7-62.

101. Medina, J.H.; Pena, C.; Levi-DeStein, M.; Wolfman, C.; Paladini, A.C. 1989. Benzodiazepine-like molecules, as well as other ligands for the brain benzodiazepine receptors, are relatively common constituents of plants. Biochemical Biophysical Research Communications. 165(2): 547-553.

The presence of benzodiazepine (BZD)-like molecules as well as of other substances with affinity for the brain BZD-receptors was explored in eight non-flowering plants known to contain biflavonoids, three flowering plants used as sedatives in folkloric medicine, and one plant extensively used in Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, and Paraguay as a tea substitute. All the plants examined contained substances that bound to the central BZD-receptors, and the majority of them also had BZD-like compounds detected by their specific interaction with a monoclonal antibody against BZDs. In various cases this last type of compound was present in amounts that exceeded trace levels (0.5 - 1.0 ng/g). The biological or clinical significance for humans of all these substances should be explored.

102. Minckler, L.S.; Ryker, R.A. 1959. Color, form, and growth variations in eastern redcedar. Journal of Forestry. 57(5): 347-349.

In 1951, 2-year-old seedlings from eight geographical sources of Juniperus virginiana were planted in randomized plots (100-400 trees/plot) within replicated blocks on an old field site in southern Illinois. Six years later significant variations in winter foliage color, crown form, growth rate, survival, leaf form, and resistance to cedar-apple rust were noted. The progeny of some large trees in the Lebanon Forest, Wilson County, north central Tennessee, were the largest and the greenest in winter. They showed 92 percent survival after 6 years; had broadly conical crowns with mostly scale-like leaves; were vigorous; and had good characteristics for Christmas trees, lumber, and posts.

103. Monk, R.W.; Wiebe, H.H. 1961. Salt tolerance and protoplasmic salt hardiness of various woody and herbaceous ornamental plants. Plant Physiology. 36(4): 478-482. 9 refs.

Salt-hardiness was measured by the plasmolytic and tetrazolium methods. Salt-tolerant species included Salix alba var. vitellina, Robinia pseudoacacia, Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis, Elaeagnus angustifolia, and Tamarix gallica. Among the somewhat salt-tolerant species were Juniperus virginiana, Pinus ponderosa, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. lanceolata. Among the non-tolerant species were Picea pungens, Juglans nigra, Tilia cordata , and Pseudotsuga taxifolia.

104. Muenscher, W.C. 1949. The red cedar. Cornell Plantations. 5: 47.

Describes occurrence, distribution, wood qualities, and form.

105. Murphey, W.K. 1961. Relationship between extractive and durability of six species of wood. Res. Circ. 96. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Agricultural Experiment Station. 15 p. 7 refs.

To identify the compounds imparting durability, a study was begun on six species providing relatively durable fence posts: (a) Robinia pseudoacacia, (b) Juglans nigra, (c) Catalpa speciosa, (d) Juniperus virginiana, (e) Morus rubra, (f) Maclura pomifera. Tests were made on Coniophora puteana, Lenzites trabea, Merulius lacrymans, Polyporus versicolor, Poria incrassata, and P. monticola, using extractives obtained with seven solvents. Compounds inhibiting fungus growth were extracted by: alcohol from (c), (e), and (f); benzene/alcohol from (b), (e), and (f); complete extraction from (e) and (f); hot water from (a). No correlation was found between the content of 12 inorganic elements in wood or extractives and the inhibition of test fungi. In the second phase of the study, the isolation of the compound or compounds responsible for natural durability is being attempted.

106. Nagano, K.; Nakamura, M.; Toda, Y. 1991. Study on the chromosomes of Cupressaceae: VIII. Karyotype of Juniperus. In: Proceedings of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu Tokai University. 10: 75-88. Japanese.

The detailed karyotype analysis on five species of Juniperus (J. virginiana, J. rigida, J. lutchuensis, J. horizontalis, J. chinensis) and four varieties of J. chinensis (var. procumbens, var. sargentii, var. kaizuku, var. jacobiana) was studied. A comparative karyological study among the species and the varieties through the observation of nucleoli using the Ag-I method was also conducted. The number of chromosomes of Juniperus was 2n = 22, except for J. chinensis (2n = 44) and its varieties (2n = 44). Karyotype of Juniperus in all species observed consisted of satellite chromosome, metacentric chromosomes, and submetacentric chromosome. The relative lengths of each chromosome in all species and varieties observed held no remarkable differences. Also, their sizes decreased from large to small in a gradual manner. For these two reasons, this karyotype was classified as symmetric and gradual. The number of satellite chromosomes of Juniperus coincided highly with the maximum number of nucleoli per cell. However, J. chinensis var. procumbens, which was tetraploid, had four nucleoli, one of which was very small. It was found by the karyotype analysis that var. procumbens had only three observable satellite chromosomes.

107. Ormsbee, P.; Bazzaz, F.A.; Boggess, W.R. 1976. Physiological ecology of Juniperus virginiana in old fields. Oecologia. 23(1): 75-82. 21 refs.

Reports laboratory studies of the effects of irradiance intensity, temperature, and leaf water potential on the rates of apparent photosynthesis and transpiration of J. virginiana. Results showed that this species grows well in open fields and faster than associated tree species because it is a sun-adapted, drought-resistant species with a long growing season. It is excluded from mature forests because it is intolerant of shade.

108. Ottley, A.M. 1909. The development of the gametophytes and fertilization in Juniperus communis and Juniperus virginiana. Botanical Gazette. 48: 31-46.

109. Pack, D.A. 1921. Chemistry of after-ripening, germination, and seedling development of juniper seeds. Botanical Gazette. 72: 139-150.

Describes physiological and chemical changes in the fats during after-ripening, and the seedling development of eastern redcedar.

110. Pack, D.A. 1925. Dispersion of lipoids. Botanical Gazette. 79: 334-338.

As the tissues of eastern redcedar seeds grew active, the lipoids became dispersed.

111. Palma-Otal, M.; Moore, W.S.; Adams, R.P.; Joswiak, G.R. 1983. Morphological, chemical and biogeographical analyses of a hybrid zone involving Juniperus virginiana and J. horizontalis in Wisconsin. Canadian Journal of Botany. 61(10): 2733-2746. 39 refs.

112. Parent, J.; Richard, P.J.H. 1990. Pollen morphology of Cupressaceae from eastern Canada and northeastern United States applied to the study of Quaternary sediments. Canadian Journal of Botany. 68(1): 79-89. 32 refs. French

Light microscopy was used to study pollen morphology of Chamaecyparis thyoides, Juniperus communis var. depressa and var. montana, J. horizontalis, J. horizontalis var. alpina, J. virginiana, and Thuja occidentalis. Pollen of Taxodium distichum (Taxodiaceae), which is present in the study area, was also studied. Four pollen types were identified: J. communis /Thuja occidentalis, C. thyoides, J. horizontalis /J. virginiana, and Taxodium distichum. Five shapes of pollen grains, representing different stages of hydration, were found in all species and could not be used for identification. A key is included for identifying pollen in fossil sediments.

113. Parker, J. 1950. Germination of eastern redcedar seeds. Journal of Forestry. 48(4): 255-256. 7 refs.

When seeds of Juniperus virginiana are freed of their fruit coats and planted out of doors in a forest soil in midwinter, some germination may be expected. Even if fruit coats are not removed, a few seeds may germinate the first spring and a larger number the second spring. Exposure of seed to a temperature of 41o F or below for 2-3 months appears to be essential for successful germination, though a few seeds may germinate when exposed to room temperature. Scarification of seeds by abrasion, or opening the seeds by cracking the seed coats, resulted in earlier germination, but did not, in the experiments reported, increase total germination.

114. Parker, J. 1950. The effects of flooding on the transpiration and survival of some southeastern forest tree species. Plant Physiology. 25: 453-460. 6 refs.

A study was made on potted seedlings of various hardwood and softwood species to discover the injury caused to roots by flooding, as measured by decreases in transpiration rates. Results are given graphically. Substantial similarity between the species in reduction of transpiration rates was shown. Juniperus virginiana, Quercus borealis var. maxima, Pinus taeda, Q. alba, and Q. prinus all responded similarly. Taxodium distichum showed an outstandingly high level of transpiration rate after flooding. Q. lyrata showed a decline similar to the other oaks in the first few days of flooding, but, unlike them, produced a second crop of leaves. Leaves of Cornus florida died shortly after flooding in one experiment, but died only after 3 weeks when the experiment was repeated.

115. Parker, J. 1954. Available water in stems of some Rocky Mountain conifers. Botanical Gazette. 115(4): 380-385. 12 refs.

Reports results of a further study in a series on drought-resistance in conifers. Relative amounts of water were investigated in the various tissues supplying the foliage of ponderosa pine, Douglas fir, grand fir, and redcedar. Water content of terminal twigs per dry weight of needles growing above the point of severance was higher in ponderosa pine than in the other three species studied, differences between these being insignificant. For all four species, the water contents of the twigs as a percent of their dry weight were not significantly different and had little meaning for water availability to the needles. In all four species, defoliated branches 6 feet long retained water longer than needle-bearing ones over a period of 3-5 days, as determined by sectioning the branches and determining the water content by oven-drying. Ponderosa pine had the highest average water content in untreated freshly cut branches. Determinations of stem water content showed that heartwood water varied considerably from one species to another, that of ponderosa pine and grand fir being high and that of Douglas fir and redcedar being quite low; total stem water was slightly higher in the two former than the two latter. The water content of stems in Douglas fir and ponderosa pine showed a definite annual cycle of increase and decrease, apparently depending on the weather.

116. Parker, J. 1971. Heat resistance and respiratory response in twigs of some common tree species. Botanical Gazette. 132(4): 268-273. 20 refs.

Terminal twigs were taken at monthly intervals for 15 months from (a) Juniperus virginiana, (b) Picea pungens, (c) Quercus rubra, and (d) Fraxinus americana, and were heated at 57o C for periods of 1-10 minutes; their respiration was then measured in terms of CO2 release and the viability of tissue determined by the tetrazolium test. In all species, heat resistance was greatest in winter and lowest in summer; (a) was usually more resistant than (b), and (d) was somewhat more resistant than (c). The post-heating respiratory rate (PHRR) was nearly always higher in (b) than in (a); in autumn the rate was 10 times the normal in (b) and 3 times the normal in (a). In February there was little or no respiratory rise in (a) and (b) after heating. The PHRR was nearly always greater in (c) than in (d). Both (c) and (d) had maximum rates in December in two separate years, and in one year the PHRR of (c) in December was 10 times the normal.

117. Parker, J. 1971. Unusual tonoplast in conifer leaves. Nature. 234(5326): 231. 7 refs.

An unusual layer, 0.4-1.0 Êm thick, was observed between the main vacuole and the cytoplasm in leaf chlorenchyma cells of Picea pungens and Juniperus virginiana (unusual because the tonoplast in higher plant cells is generally recognized to consist of a single membrane). It appeared to have a lipid nature and did not vary much with season. The layer was also found in Pinus strobus, Tsuga canadensis, Taxus baccata, and Thuja occidentalis (where, however, it was thinner or often lacking), but not in broadleaved trees such as Fraxinus americana, Ulmus americana, and Acer saccharum. It was never found in a leaf stele. The fact that the layer was thickest in the two most drought-resistant species, Picea pungens and J. virginiana, suggests that it may be involved in resistance to water stress. When leaves of these two species were slowly dried to 35 percent of fresh weight in 3 days, chloroplastlamellae and mitochondrial cristae often disintegrated or lysed while tonoplasts (including the layer reported here) remained intact.

118. Pestre, M. 1942. Tests of the physical and mechanical properties of certain exotic woods from the Arboretum of Les Barres. Ann. Ec. Eaux For. Nancy. 8(2): 280-291. French.

Reports results of tests made in 1942 on wood of the following exotic species grown at Les Barres: Pinus laricio, P. ponderosa, P. coulteri, Larix decidua, Abies nordmanniana, Cedrus atlantica, Juniperus virginiana.

119. Read, R.A.; Bagley, W.T. 1967. Response of tree seedlings to extended photoperiods. Res. Pap. RM-30. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.16 p.

Eastern redcedar seedlings were grown under 14- and 24-hour photoperiods, and under 14-hour photoperiods with one and two light interruptions in the dark period. Seedlings were usually the tallest and heaviest under continuous light, intermediate under the interrupted dark. Long photoperiod stimulated top growth more than root growth, but did not affect field survival.

120. Rehder, A. 1929. Juniperus. In: Bailey, L.H., ed. Standard cyclopedia of horticulture. New York, NY: Macmillan Press: 1726-1729.

121. Riker, A.J. 1945. Some possibilities for developing resistance to disease in trees. American Nurseryman. 81(12): 5-7.

Among the best general means for securing disease resistance are the selection of individuals, of both local and foreign origin, with desirable characters including disease resistance, and inducing variations in them, mainly by cross-pollination and also by treatment with ultra-violet light and with colchicine; the best individuals are again selected and the process continued. The desired result may be obtained more rapidly if the selected plants can be reproduced vegetatively with seeds, a number of successive generations are necessary to stabilize a desired character. Promising work is being done in the United States in the production of disease-resistant strains of chestnut, elm, and white pine, and a rust-resistant strain of redcedar (Berg's rust-resistant variety of Juniperus virginiana) has been developed and is available commercially. At the Griffith State Nursery, Wisconsin, 1,000 grafts and 10,000 seedlings of white pine are being tested, the progeny of 163 trees selected for resistance to heavy natural infection of blister rust. Experiments in rooting of cuttings from young white pine have given 40 to 50 percent success, and somewhat better results have been obtained by treating the cuttings with indolebutyric acid, 1:5,000 for 6 hours. Cuttings from rapidly growing, vigorous shoots have been found to root less easily than those from slower growing shoots.

122. Ross, J.G.; Duncan, R.E. 1949. Cytological evidences of hybridization between Juniperus virginiana and J. horizontalis. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 76(6): 414-429. 17 refs.

123. Rubanik, V.G.; Zeronkina, T.A. 1969. Development of cones of Juniperus virginiana and J. communis in Alma-Ata. Botanicheskii Zhurnal. 54(3): 464-470. 15 refs. Russian.

Reports results of a comparative phenological and anatomical study.

124. Sargent, C.S. 1895. The red cedar. Garden and Forest. 8: 61-62.

125. Sax, K.; Sax, H.J. 1933. Chromosome number and morphology in the conifers. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. 14: 356-375.

126. Schaefer, P.R.; Baer, N.B. 1988. An eastern redcedar and Rocky Mountain juniper provenance test for windbreak suitability in eastern South Dakota. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 5(2): 129-132. 16 refs.

A regional provenance test of 118 eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) and 26 Rocky Mountain juniper (J. scopulorum) sources was established in Brookings, South Dakota, U.S.A., in 1980. Eastern redcedar exhibited better combinations of traits, with greater height growth, larger crown spread, a wider branch angle, and a stronger tendency toward producing a single terminal leader than Rocky Mountain juniper. Based on a windbreak suitability index, best performing seedlots collected from natural stands were all eastern redcedar from a large area of the central Great Plains. These results indicate that eastern redcedar should be favored over Rocky Mountain juniper for planting in eastern South Dakota, and sources of eastern redcedar south of central Kansas should be avoided.

127. Schnell, R.L. 1976. Biomass estimates of eastern redcedar tree components. Tech. Note B15. Tennessee Valley Authority. 15 p. 5 refs.

Components of the above-ground portions of 31 forest-grown trees of Juniperus virginiana from the Tennessee Valley were cut and weighed after determining standing tree measurements. Wood and bark samples were oven-dried to determine moisture content and establish dry weights, and ratios of bark to wood were calculated. Stump weights were obtained at a manufacturing plant. Data are tabulated giving green and dry weights for leaves, wood and bark in branches (more and less than 1 inch diameter), total crown, merchantable and unmerchantable stem, deadwood, stumps, and whole trees with diameters at breast height of 5 to 20 inches.

128. Schoenike, R. 1969. Early evaluation of a seed source study in eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) in South Carolina. In: Proceedings, 10th Southern forest tree improvement conference: 165-174. 12 refs.

Presents and discusses preliminary data taken from 4- to 9-year-old trees of 21 provenances growing in Clemson Forest, South Carolina. The characters studied are survival, growth, symptoms of disease, color of winter foliage, amount of foliage, and percent of juvenile foliage.

129. Schulman, E. 1944. Notes on dendrochronologies at the Arnold Arboretum. Tree Ring Bulletin. 10: 30-32.

Makes some general observations on tree-ring characteristics of the species Cedrus libani, Juniperus virginiana, and Tsuga canadensis.

130. Schultze-Dewitz, G.; Goetze, H. 1992. Transverse dimensions of softwood tracheids. Feddes Repertorium. 103(3-4): 195-204.

For 130 years transverse dimensions of softwood tracheids have been the subject of study. Selected references show that diameter and wall thickness of the cells have been more thoroughly studied than lumen diameter. An attempt was made to correlate these three anatomical parameters among each of them and with wood density in 15 coniferous tree species (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Juniperus virginiana, Thuja plicata, Larix decidua, Picea abies, P. schrinkiana, Pinus durangensis, P. palustris, P. sylvestris, P. strobus, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Tsuga heterophylla, Podocarpus nagaia, Sequoiadendron giganteum, Taxodium distichum).

131. Schurtz, R.H. 1972. A taxonomic analysis of a triparental hybrid swarm in Juniperus L. Dissertation Abstracts International, B Sciences and Engineering. 32(11): 6248.

Describes the development and application of a method for analyzing populations of plants derived from at least three species. The method was applied to 634 specimens of Juniperus collected in Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, North Dakota, and South Dakota, and 35 characters (including gross morphological and foliage characters) were measured. The data were processed on an IBM 360 computer using three programs, including one designed to determine the bases for character correlations in terms of extremes of character expressions. Analysis of the outputs resulted in the separation of three sets of correlated characteristics, which could be assigned to J. horizontalis, J. virginiana, and J. scopulorum. The majority of the specimens possessed varying proportions of germ plasma attributable to the three taxa, but some appeared to be hybrids of only two species.

132. Seidel, K.W.; Watt, R.F. 1969. Survival and growth of eastern redcedar seed sources in southwest Missouri. Res. Note NC-84. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 4 p. 1 ref.

In a trial of nine provenances of Juniperus virginiana, the order of superiority (in survival, form, vigor, and height growth) at 5 years was: W. Virginia (Mason County) > local and Arkansas > western and northern provenances, allowing for differences in the planting stock used.

133. Setzer, W.N.; Whitaker, K.W.; Lawton, R.O. 1992. A chemical ecological study of the components of the essential oil of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) from three habitats in Huntsville, Alabama. Castanea. 57(3): 209-213.

134. Shirley, H.L. 1945. Light as an ecological factor and its measurement. Botanical Review. 11: 497-532.

Pioneer woody species such as redcedar rarely cast shade dense enough to preclude invasion of other species, but their shade and root competition may markedly reduce the growth of all but the most tolerant species.

135. Smith, W.B. 1992. Determining moisture content in eastern redcedar. Forest Products Journal. 42(7/8): 67-69. 7 refs.

For 13 eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) heartwood and sapwood samples, moisture content was determined by oven drying, toluene extraction distillation, and use of an electronic resistance-type moisture meter. The results show that, due to the presence of volatile organic compounds, oven drying is not a satisfactory method of determining heartwood moisture content. The distillation method proved to be more accurate and can be used to provide correction factors for the convenient, below fiber saturation point, use of resistance moisture meters.

136. Sperry, J.S.; Tyree, M.T. 1990. Water-stress-induced xylem embolism in three species of conifers. Plant Cell Environment. 13(5): 427-436. 17 refs.

This mechanism was studied using sample branches collected in Vermont from mature Juniperus virginiana, Picea rubens, and Abies balsamea. Each species exhibited a characteristic relation between xylem tension and loss of hydraulic conductivity by air embolism. A. balsamea and P. rubens began to embolize at tensions between 2 and 3 MPa, and were completely non-conducting between 3 and 4 MPa. Juniperus virginiana was least vulnerable, beginning to embolize at 4 MPa and still retaining approximately 10 percent conductivity at 10 MPa. Brief perfusion of branch segments with an oxalic acid and calcium solution (10 and 0.1 mol/m3, respectively) increased vulnerability of xylem to embolism; this was especially pronounced in A. balsamea. When hydrated branch segments were injected with air at various pressures and measured for embolism, results supported the air-seeding hypothesis (embolism caused by aspiration of air into functional tracheids from neighboring embolized ones). Structural and experimental evidence suggested that air-seeding occurred through inter-tracheid pit membranes when the thickened torus region of the membrane became displaced from its normal sealing position over the pit aperture. Thus, embolism-inducing tension may be a function of pit membrane flexibility. This tension is of ecological significance because it reflects to some extent the range of xylem tensions to which a species is adapted.

137. Sprackling, J.A.; Read, R.A. 1979. Tree root systems in eastern Nebraska. Bull. 37. Lincoln, NE: Nebraska Conservation. 73 p. 10 refs.

Root drawings and data, from a study made between 1939 and 1941, are presented for 39 species of trees or shrubs growing naturally at four locations. Root depth and spread were measured by total excavation of trees 5 years old and younger, and by partial excavation of older trees. A description of tree and site is given for each excavation, and root distribution characteristics contributing to drought-hardiness are noted. Average ratios of root depth/tree height, root spread/tree height, and root depth/root spread are tabulated for 12 of the most common tree species.

138. Stamm, A.J. 1970. Maximum effective pit pore radii of the heartwood and sapwood of six softwoods as affected by drying and resoaking. Wood Fiber. 1(4): 263-269. 15 refs.

Maximum effective pit-pore radii (e.p.r.) calculated from the air pressure needed to displace liquid from cross-sections of green sapwood and heartwood, 1/32 to 3 inch thick, and the surface tension of the liquid, were found for Pseudotsuga menziesii, Libocedrus decurrens, Thuja occidentalis, Juniperus virginiana, Larix laricina, and Sequoia sempervirens. Sapwood (s.w.) showed higher maximum lumen radius and fiber length than heartwood (h.w.), both features being attributed to tree age. E.p.r. was much higher for s.w. than for h.w. Species differed markedly in relative differences in calculated permeability between s.w. and h.w.; Larix showed the greatest and Sequoia showed the least difference. Air- or oven-drying followed by re-soaking in water rendered the wood less permeable, the effect being rather less when wetting agents were added.

139. Stoeckeler, J.H. 1946. Alkali tolerance of drought-hardy trees and shrubs in the seed and seedling stage. Minnesota Academy of Science Proceedings. 14: 79-83.

Redcedar was one of the least alkali tolerant species of the 20 different species tested.

140. Tang, R.C.; Smith, N.D. 1975. Investigation of anisotropic shrinkage of isolated softwood tracheids with scanning electron microscope. Part I: Longitudinal shrinkage. Wood Science. 8(1): 415-424. 14 refs.

Presents an illustrated account of the anisotropic shrinkage of early- and late-wood tracheids chemically isolated from Pinus strobus, P. virginiana, Juniperus virginiana, Abies balsamea, and Pseudotsuga menziesii. The variation of microfibrillar angle, helical diameter, twisting angle, number of twists, and change in cell length were investigated. Results are analyzed and discussed.

141. Tauer, C.G.; Harris, K.D.; VanHaverbeke, D.F. 1987. Seed source influences juniper seedling survival under severe drought stress. Res. Note RM-470. Lincoln, NE: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 4 p. 8 refs.

Seedlings of 39 sources of Juniperus virginiana and 15 sources of J. scopulorum, representing collections from throughout the Great Plains, were planted in 1980 as 2+0 stock in South-central Oklahoma. Extreme drought during 1980 resulted in 77 percent mortality. Survival by source showed a low and negative, but significant, correlation with mean nursery height of seedlings. J. scopulorum survived better (32 percent) than J. virginiana (20 percent). Seed origin affected survival only of J. virginiana.

142. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1907. Red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). Circ. 73. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 4 p.

Discusses tree form, range, growth characteristics, utilization, planting techniques, and cultivation.

143. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1955. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana). Useful trees of the United States 13. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 4 p.

Describes distribution, growth habits, size, characteristics, uses, and pests.

144. Van Dersal, W.R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States. Misc. Publ. 303. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 362 p.

Discusses eastern redcedar's suitability for arid sites, use in erosion control, and wildlife food and cover.

145. VanDeusen, J.L. 1979. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) seed sources recommended for North Dakota sites. Res. Note RM-371. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 6 p. 6 refs.

146. VanHaverbeke, D.F.; Comer, C.W. 1985. Effects of treatment and seed source on germination of eastern redcedar seed. Res. Pap. RM-263. Lincoln, NE: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 7 p. 24 refs.

Trials of 22 treatments showed that germination of Juniperus virginiana seeds was best after soaking in citric acid (10,000 p.p.m.) for 96 hours followed by moist warm (24o C) stratification for 6 weeks and moist cold (5o C) stratification for 10 weeks. Seed from different sources in the Great Plains (South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, and Oklahoma) differed in their responses to the treatments.

147. VanHaverbeke, D.F.; King, R.M. 1990. Genetic variation in Great Plains Juniperus. Res. Pap. RM-292. Lincoln, NE: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 10 p.

148. VanHaverbeke, D.F.; Read, R.A. 1976. Genetics of eastern redcedar. Res. Pap. WO-32. Lincoln, NE: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 17 p. 110 refs.

Mainly reviews the literature, with sections on sexual reproduction, asexual reproduction, genetic variation, resistance to diseases, and improvement programs. Juniperus virginiana shows a high degree of geographical variation in several characters, and it is suggested that research should be carried out on provenance variation (particularly in the eastern range of the species), controlled breeding, and resistance to pests and diseases.

149. Vasiliauskas, S.A.; Aarssen, L.W. 1992. Sex ratio and neighbor effects in monospecific stands of Juniperus virginiana. Ecology. 73(2): 622-632.

150. Vimmerstedt, J.P. 1968. Root cation-exchange capacity and the mineral nutrition of eastern white pine and eastern redcedar. Soil Science Society of America. 32(2): 289-292. 10 refs.

Greenhouse experiments were made with seedlings grown on natural soils (fertile limestone (a) or poor sandstone (b)) or artificial soils (crushed quartz and various amounts of kaolinite with exchange sites occupied by either K, Ca, or Al) to test the hypothesis that, in accordance with the Donnan theory of cation uptake and findings for agricultural plants, the species with the lower monovalent-to-divalent cation ratio (MDCR) would have the higher root cation-exchange capacity (CEC). A field study had shown that foliage of Juniperus virginiana had a lower MDCR than that of Pinus strobus. However, on natural soils in the laboratory, neither MDCR nor CEC of the seedlings differed significantly between the species. The influence of the clay content natural soils, and clay cation of the artificial soils on the dry weight, Ca, K and Mg content, and the K/Ca + Mg ratio in seedlings of both species is tabulated or graphed. Cation content and cation ratio of the soil had a strong influence on cation ratio and cation content of foliage.

151. Vinutha, A.R.; VonRudloff, E. 1968. Gas/liquid chromatography of terpenes. Part XVII. The volatile oil of leaves of Juniperus virginiana L. Canadian Journal of Chemistry. 46(23): 3743-3750. 16 refs.

Sabinene was found to be the main component, but a number of other substances were also isolated. The similarity of most of the components with those found in J. horizontalis and J. scopulorum indicates a close phylogenetic relationship. Quantitative aspects were studied with a view to future studies of chemosystematic relationships. Leaf oils of different trees of J. virginiana from Texas and Ontario were found to give wide quantitative variations of the individual components.

152. VonRudloff, E.; Irving, R.; Turner, B.L. 1967. Reevaluation of allopatric introgressions between Juniperus ashei and J. virginiana using gas chromatography. American Journal of Botany. 54(5): 660.

Introgression across a broad front has been postulated for the allopatric species J. ashei and J. virginiana. Evidence for gene flow of a subcontinental magnitude in these species is based primarily on inferences drawn from morphology. Such data, however, are difficult to gather and to interpret. Preliminary tests show that the terpenes as characterized by gas chromatography are particularly useful, since 80-90 of these compounds are found in the two species and 10 are common to each. Preliminary results also indicate that introgression as an explanation of the intergradation and seemingly clinal change in certain morphological features of the species seems to have been grossly overemphasized.

153. Williamson, M.J. 1957. Silvical characteristics of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana). Misc. Rel. 15. Columbus, OH: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Central States Forest Experiment Station. 14 p. 55 refs.

154. Williamson, M.J. 1965. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.). In: Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agric. Handb. 271. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 212-216.

155. Wyman, D.D. 1947. Giant red cedars - Virginia vs. Bay State. Horticulture. 25: 74.

Describes the dimensions of several redcedars of exceptional size.

156. Yeager, A.F. 1935. Root systems of certain trees and shrubs grown on prairie soils. Journal of Agricultural Research. 51: 1085-1092.

In North Dakota, in an area with 22.4 inches of rainfall per year, planted redcedars had roots up to 22 feet long at age 25 years. The greatest depth of roots was more than 12 feet.

157. Zheronkina, T.A. 1974. Structure of the seed-coat of Juniper and its role in germination. Byulleten Glavnogo Botanicheskogo Sada. 91: 67-72. 10 refs. Russian.

In continued work on sowing of unripe seed of Juniperus communis and J. virginiana, an illustrated account is given of the structure of the seed-coat of seeds of these two species collected in May, June, July, and October; the process of the deposition of lignin in the seed-coat is described. In Kazakhstan, the seeds are best able to germinate in early August (J. communis) and late September/early October (J. virginiana) when the lateral suture of the seed-coat is open. When the berry is morphologically ripe, the seeds enter deep dormancy, with closure of the suture, deposition of lignin in the stone cells, and lignification of the parenchyma.

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