An Annotated Bibliography of Eastern Redcedar
- Cedar Extracts
- Christmas Tree Production
- Lumber Products
- Repellents and Inhibitors
- Other Products
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490. Arend, J.L. 1947. An early eastern red cedar plantation in Arkansas. Journal of Forestry. 45: 358-360.
An eastern redcedar plantation was established with wildling stock in 1902. After 44 years, average survival was 85 percent. The 1,027 trees were estimated to contain 5,866 fence posts with a value of approximately $800. Under intensive management, potential returns could have been much larger.
491. Back, E.A.; Rabak, F. 1922. Red cedar chests as protectors against moth damage. Bull. 1051. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 14 p.
492. Booth, F.L. 1929. Manufacturing and shipping cedar chests. Wood-Worker. 48: 32-33.
493. Brown, L.E. 1912. Tennessee red cedar. Southern Lumberman. 69(900): 109-111.
494. Brown, L.E. 1926. Tennessee red cedar. Southern Lumberman. 125(1629): 201-202.
495. Cromie, G.A. 1944. Fields of red cedar. Connecticut Woodland. 9: 23-25.
Red cedar can be one of the most profitable tree crops on farm edges. A variety of products and the number of salable trees per acre that can be grown are discussed.
496. Evelyn, J. 1664. Sylva, or a discourse of forest trees and the propagation of timber. London: Martyn and Allestay.
"The cedar...grows in all extremes: in the moist Barbados; the hot Bermudas, the cold New England; even where the snow lies (as I am assur'd) almost half the year: Why then it should not thrive in Old England, I conceive is from our want of industry: It grows in the bogs of America...".
497. Hall, W.L.; Maxwell, H. 1911. Uses of commercial woods of the United States. I. Cedars, cypresses, and sequoias. Bull. 95. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 19-29.
Describes properties, uses, and supply of redcedar.
498. Jane, F.W. 1954. The structure of world timbers. XXII. Four species of the cedar. Timber Technology. 62: 67-69.
499. Maughan, W. 1936. A cubic volume table for eastern redcedar. Journal of Forestry. 34: 777-778.
Features a local volume table in cubic feet for the middle Atlantic Piedmont.
500. Maughan, W. 1937. A board foot table for eastern redcedar. Journal of Forestry. 35: 734-735.
Features a board foot volume table for the middle Atlantic Piedmont.
501. Morton, T. 1637. New English Canaan. In: Force, P., ed. Tracts relating to the colonies in North America. 2: 45-54.
"Cedar, of this sorte there is an abundance: and this wood was such as Solomon used for the building of that glorious temple at Hierusalem.... This wood cuts red, and is good for bedsteads, tables, and chests....".
502. Pochan, M. 1977. Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) - useful tree. Connecticut Woodland. 42(1): 7-9.
503. Shoulder, E. 1954. Costs of skidding eastern redcedar. For. Notes 90. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station.
Skidding eastern redcedar in tree lengths and bucking the stems at loading points appears cheaper than bucking at the stump and skidding products. Savings increased with the diameter and merchantable length of the trees handled.
504. USDA Forest Service. 1943. Useful trees of the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.
Includes seven leaflets of a series, each giving brief notes on the distribution, tree characters, wood properties and uses, etc., for one of the economically useful trees of the United States. These leaflets deal respectively with eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), white ash (Fraxinus americana), American elm (Ulmus americana), black walnut (Juglans nigra), yellow birch (Betula lutea), and American beech (Fagus grandifolia).
505. Zimmerman, A.H.; Cummings, W.H. 1952. Redcedar cumulative volume tally. Journal of Forestry. 50: 867.
This is a form based on volume tables for eastern redcedar in the Tennessee Valley.
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506. Adams, R.P. 1987. Investigation of Juniperus species of the United States for new sources of cedarwood oil. Economic Botany. 41(1): 48-54. 31 refs.
The yields and composition of commercially important components of the oils were determined for 11 taxa of Juniperus with widespread distribution in the U.S.A. and significant biomass production. Taxa studied were J. ashei, J. californica, J. erythrocarpa, J. deppeana, J. monosperma, J. occidentalis var. occidentalis and var. australis, J. osteosperma, J. pinchotii, J. scopulorum, and J. virginiana. Cedarwood oil yields in J. erythrocarpa and J. scopulorum were similar to those of the species currently used commercially (J. ashei and J. virginiana); neither species is likely to be competitive on a large scale, but both might support small, local distillation facilities.
507. Adams, R.P. 1987. Yields and seasonal variation of phytochemicals from Juniperus species of the United States. Biomass. 12(2): 129-139. 16 refs.
An analysis was made of hexane- and methanol-soluble phytochemicals from leaves, bark/sapwood, and heartwood. Foliage provided the best yields with 5.4-16.7 percent DM of hexane-extractables and 23.8-35.2 percent DM of methanol-extractables. The 10 species examined were: J. ashei, J. californica, J. deppeana, J. erythrocarpa, J. monosperma, J. occidentalis, J. osteosperma, J. pinchotii, J. scopulorum, and J. virginiana.
508. Bailey, L.F. 1948. Leaf oils from Tennessee Valley conifers. Journal of Forestry. 46(12): 882-889. 20 refs.
Freshly collected foliage of Juniperus virginiana, Pinus echinata, P. virginiana, and P. taeda was steam-distilled to determine the yield and characteristics of the oils produced. The methods employed are described. Maximum yields for the four species, obtained by distilling fresh foliage harvested during winter months from dominant trees of merchantable size, were 0.46, 0.32, 0.28, and 0.35 percent respectively. Yields from suppressed trees and young plantation growth were poor, and foliage harvested in June gave consistently low yields. Physical characteristics of the oils are reported. Since the yields obtained were rather lower than those of species used for commercial production of leaf oils in the northeastern U.S.A., the development of improved harvesting and distilling procedures may be necessary before waste tops from logging operations can be used commercially for this purpose in the Tennessee Valley.
509. Bender, F. 1963. Cedar leaf oils. Publ. 1008. Canada: Department of Forestry. 16 p. 7 refs.
Gives data on yields and some production figures and prices. Some physical and mechanical properties of the oil are tabulated, and a brief description is given of the industry in Canada and the U.S.A., together with details of the main commercial outlets in Canada.
510. British Standards Institute. 1975. Specifications for essential oils. BS 2999/53 to 57. London, UK: British Standards Institute. 12 p.
This specification covers definition, description, requirements, sampling and size of sample of oil of eucalyptus, oil of Indonesian clove leaf, oil of Litsea cubeba, dementholized oil of Mentha arvensis, and oil of Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), in specifications 53 to 57, respectively.
511. Chavchanidze, V.Y.; Kharebava, L.G. 1989. Studies on the essential oils of juniper. Subtropicheskie Kul'tury. 4: 131-143. 78 refs. Russian.
Analytical data are tabulated and discussed for essential oils extracted from needles of the following species grown in the Central Botanic Garden at Tbilisi: Juniperus pachyphloea, J. polycarpos, J. chinensis, J. sabina, J. virginiana, and J. foetidissima. The oils showed marked quantitative and qualitative differences, with the number of components detected ranging from 179 (J. sabina) to 246 (J. foetidissima).
512. Chopra, I.C.; Handa, K.L.; Kar, A.B. 1959. Himalayan cedarwood oil as a substitute for imported cedarwood oil in microscopical work. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research (India). 18C(7): 133-134. 2 refs.
Oil from Cedrus deodara compared favorably with that of Juniperus virginiana for microscopic work.
513. Environmental Protection Agency. 1993. RED facts: wood oils and gums (cedarwood oil). Fact Sheet. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs. 4 p.
Cedarwood oil is a natural component of wood from the tree, Juniperus virginiana L. It is an active ingredient in five pesticide products that are used as repellents and feeding depressants to control moths and fleas and retard the growth of mildew. Three of these products are solid cedarwood blocks used to repel moths from clothing and retard mildew growth on fabrics. The other two products, which contain extracted cedarwood oil, are a pet tag or collar and a liquid sprayed on animal bedding. Cedar also is a major component of many non-pesticidal consumer products currently marketed in the United States.
514. Greaves, C. 1939. Cedar leaf oils. Canadian Forestry Products Laboratory. 18 p.
515. Guenther, E. 1942. Essential oils and their production in the Western Hemisphere. New York, NY: Fritzsche Brothers, Inc. 30 p.
In this popular account of the plants of the Western Hemisphere from which essential oils are obtained on a commercial basis, reference is made to the following forest trees: rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora var. amazonica) and Copaiba (Copaiba spp.) from the Amazon basin; Bulnesia sarmienti from the Gran Chaco of Paraguay; Myroxylon pereirae (balsam Peru) from El Salvador; Bursera aloexylon from Mexico; and Betula lyenta, Sassafras albidum, Juniperus virginiana, and Pinus spp. from the United States.
516. Guenther, E. 1943. Oil of cedar wood. Soap and Sanitary Chemicals. 19: 94-97, 109.
The red heartwood of Juniperus virginiana L. contains a useful oil, the main constituent of which is cedrol, a tertiary tricyclic alcohol (C15H26O). Prior to 1917, the main source of cedar wood oil was the old virgin timber used by pencil slat manufacturers. Later, owing to scarcity of this material, the oil had to be distilled more and more from sawdust of younger trees, and at the present time it is obtained almost exclusively from shavings and refuse in the processing of cedar boards and shingles. The yield of normal oil from fresh chips and dust averages 2 to 2.5 percent. As the proportion of heartwood to sapwood increases with the age of the tree, redcedars should not be felled before reaching the age of 25 years. Heartwood from either second-growth or virgin cedar contains approximately the same amount of oil. Because of its relative abundance and low cost, cedar wood oil is itself seldom adulterated, but it is frequently used to adulterate more expensive essential oils. Means for its detection are indicated. Data are given on the composition and properties of the oil of Juniperus virginiana, and a note is added on recent developments in the distillation of so-called cedar wood oil from Thuja occidentalis. The physio-chemical properties of this oil are quite distinct from those of redcedar oil.
517. Hayward, F.W.; Seymour, R.B. 1948. Determination of major constitutents of cedar oil vapor in cedar chests. Analytical Chemistry. 20(6): 572-574. 7 refs.
A procedure is given for rapid colorimetric determination of cedrene and cedrol in cedar (Juniperus virginiana) chests. The method is based on a red-violet color formation resulting from the reaction of cedrene with vanillin in the presence of HCl. The cedrol is then dehydrated to cedrene with phosphoric acid and determined as above.
518. Huddle, H.B. 1936. Oil of Tennessee red cedar. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 28(1): 18-21.
Production of redcedar oil is dependent on the supply of virgin redcedar, which is being depleted rapidly. Briefly describes the history of oil production, a typical still, and the physical properties and analyses of samples of oil distilled in 1932, 1933, and 1935.
519. Huddle, H.B. 1938. A preliminary report on the vacuum fractionation of the oil of Juniperus virginiana. Journal of Tennessee Academy of Science. 13: 259-267.
520. Rabak, F. 1929. Cedrol: its source and derivation. American Perfume and Essential Oil Review. 23: 727-728.
521. Runeberg, J. 1960. The chemistry of the natural order Cupressales. XVIII. Constituents of Juniperus virginiana L. Acta Chemica Scandinavica. 14: 1288-1294.
Cedar wood oil contains cuparene, cedrol, widdrol, a-cedrene, and thujopsene.
522. Sievers, A.F. 1947. The production of minor essential oils in the United States. Economic Botany. 1(2): 148-160.
Includes accounts of the distillation of the oils of cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), cedar leaf (Thuja occidentalis), sweet birch (Betula lenta), witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana).
523. Visser, J.; TerHeide, R.; VanDerLinde, L.M.; VanLier, F.P. 1988. On the chemical composition of cedarwood oil (Juniperus virginiana). Developmental Food Science. 18(10): 627-639. 44 refs.
Virginia redcedar wood oil produced by steam distillation of sawdust or finely chopped reddish heartwood of Juniperus virginiana is an indispensable raw material for the fragrance industry. The major constituents were sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and cedrol. The hydrocarbon fraction and cedrol were found to have an important role in producing the typical odor of the cedarwood oil. The remaining portion of the oil was analyzed using chemical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic methods. Several previously unreported oxygen-containing sesquiterpenes were identified. The synthesis of some of them is described.
524. VonRudloff, E. 1975. Chemosystematic studies of volatile oils of Juniperus horizontalis, J. scopulorum and J. virginiana. Phytochemistry. 14(5-6): 1319-1329. 38 refs.
525. Walker, G.T. 1968. Cedarwood oil. Perfume and Essential Oil Research. 59(5): 347-350. 12 refs.
Discusses the chemistry and uses of the oil and its sources, from Juniperus virginiana, J. procera, and J. mexicana. Wood of J. mexicana is said to be unsuitable for furniture, and the cedarwood oil from it is inferior to that of the other species, but it is a useful source of cedrol.
526. Whitaker, K.W.; Setzer, W.N.; Lawton, R.O. 1991. Terpenoid constituents of the
essential oil of redcedar (Juniperus virginiana). American Chemical Society. 201: 33.
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Christmas Tree Production
527. Alvord, B.F. 1957. Marketing Christmas trees in Alabama. Bull. 309. Tuscaloosa, AL: Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station. 26 p.
528. Brewer, C.W. 1975. Results of marketing Louisiana-grown Christmas trees (Pinus, Juniperus virginiana, Cupressus arizonica). For. Notes 112. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University. 3 p.
529. Brewer, C.W.; Hu, S.C. 1974. Performance characteristics and consumer acceptance of Louisiana-grown Christmas trees. For. Notes 109. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University. 2 p. 2 refs.
Briefly records the suitability for Christmas trees of Pinus virginiana, P. echinata, P. taeda, P. glabra, Juniperus virginiana, and Cupressus arizonica, as shown by consumer response. P. virginiana was clearly the preferred species.
530. Davis, T.S. 1983. Shearing, shaping, and pruning Christmas trees (mainly Pinus virginiana, Pinus strobus, Juniperus virginiana, production in the South). In: 32d Annual forestry symposium. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University, Division of Continuing Education: 52-60.
531. Garin, G.I. 1963. Christmas tree production in Eastern redcedar and Arizona cypress plantations. Circ. 145. Auburn, AL: Auburn University, Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station. 13 p. 7 refs.
In a plantation in central Alabama, both species required some pruning and considerable clipping to shape. Customers preferred Cupressus arizonica to Juniperus virginiana as better in color and less prickly. It was harvestable earlier (first trees at age 4 and 75 percent by age 11 vs. 8 and 15 for juniper) and more easily grown from stumps, but survival was slightly poorer.
532. Graeber, R.W. 1944. Christmas cedars beat cotton crop. Southern Plantmen. 105(2): 19.
At age 6 years, a 2-acre red cedar plantation yielded 630 Christmas trees for a value of $785. The plantation still had more than 500 trees per acre for future harvest.
533. Hinesley, L.E. 1990. Latex colorant slows drying of redcedar Christmas trees. Horticultural Science. 25(6): 673-674. 2 refs.
Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) Christmas trees, harvested in North Carolina in December 1987 or 1988, were coated with combinations of latex-based green colorant (Pinegreen) and needle sticker (Needleholder) and observed for 2 weeks at 20o C. Pinegreen reduced drying rates and helped to maintain a better water status following rehydration. Trees coated with Pinegreen (1:20), Pinegreen (1:20) plus Needleholder (1:20) or Pinegreen (1:20) followed by Needlehold (1:4) maintained a relatively steady water potential near -0.5 MPa. Water consumption was highest for control trees and those sprayed with combinations of Pinegreen (1:20) and Needlehold. The reduction in drying rate and the improved water status after rehydration were attributed to Pinegreen rather than Needlehold. The primary use of Pinegreen and Needlehold was cosmetic, making the trees look and feel better to customers.
534. Hinesley, L.E.; Snelling, L.K.; Goodman, S. 1993. "Crop-Life" does not slow posthar-vest drying of fraser fir and eastern redcedar Christmas trees. Horticultural Science. 28(10): 1054.
535. Hu, S.C.; Brewer, C.W. 1978. Shearing is a necessary cultural practice for Virginia pine Christmas tree production. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry. 2(4): 135-136.
Four species of pine (Pinus virginiana, P. glabra, P. echinata, and P. taeda), Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), and eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), were planted in Louisiana in 1967 and sheared (clipped) once a year from the third to fifth growing seasons between April and August. Christmas trees of salable grade were produced only from P. virginiana (maximum 44 percent) and P. glabra (maximum 24 percent), the best shearing time being April-May. Further shearing tests in plantations of P. virginiana showed that greatest numbers of limbs were produced and buds set after two shearings/year in the third and fourth growing seasons, and when these shearings were made in the periods April 1-May 1 and June 15-July 15. In a final test, 89 percent of trees subjected to this regime were found to be US Grade 2 or better.
536. Hu, S.C.; Main, A.C. 1986. Growing and marketing Christmas trees in Louisiana. Tech. Rep. 1876. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University, Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service. 24 p.
537. Kessler, G.D. 1985. Growing and marketing Christmas trees in South Carolina. Circ. 566 (Revised). Clemson, SC: Clemson University, Cooperative Extension Service. 13 p.
538. Moore, J.C. 1945. Christmas tree production. Circ. 92. Auburn, AL: Auburn University, Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station. 15 p.
Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), scrub pine (Pinus virginiana), and white pine (Pinus strobus) give promise of making good Christmas trees when grown in Alabama and the Southeast as erosion-control covers on sloping lands where cultivated crops are inadvisable. These and 11 other species of conifers were tested in contour rows at 4-feet spacing (2,700 to the acre) in combination with (i) native vegetation, (ii) partridge peas, (iii) Lespedeza sericea, and (iv) crimson clover and fescue grass. All combinations control erosion but better tree growth is given by (iv), which is a winter/early-spring crop dying in summer and forming a heavy mulch. Top-renewal studies show that several Christmas trees can be cut from one stump by allowing it to coppice and training or pruning the shoots.
539. Sowder, A.M. 1966. Christmas trees, the tradition and the trade. Inf. Bull. 94. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 31 p.
Eastern redcedar ranked fifth in popularity among all U.S. species. In 1964 it comprised 7
percent of the Christmas tree harvest, with more than 2 million trees cut.
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540. Greaves, C.; Harkom, J.F. 1949. Treatment of pencil slats. Parts 1 and 2. Rep. 0-122 (Revised). Canada: Forest Products Laboratory. 45 p.
Revises a 1931 report to include further experimental results and manufacturers' opinions on the slats (western redcedar, eastern cedar, and yellow cypress) so treated. The preparation, staining, waxing, and testing procedures are detailed.
541. Hallauer, F.J. 1914. Tests and supplies of pencil wood. American Lumberman. 2049: 42.
542. Nichols, C.R. 1946. The manufacture of wood-cased pencils. Mechanical Engineering. 6(11): 956-960.
This is a fairly detailed description of the whole process of manufacture of wood-cased lead pencils, including the preparation of the wood slats, which are kiln-dried, dyed in pressure vats, and then impregnated with wax. Juniperus virginiana was formerly used almost exclusively for this purpose, but now that supplies of this species are almost exhausted, its place is being taken by Libocedrus decurrens.
543. Rehman, M.A.; Gupta, P.G. 1961. Timber for pencil slats, its conversion, seasoning and treatment. Journal of Timber Dryers' Presidents Association (India). 7(1): 20-26. 4 refs.
Briefly traces the history of the pencil industry in Germany, Britain, and the U.S.A., mentioning the properties required for making slats and the main timbers used (particularly Juniperus virginiana, J. barbadensis, J. procera, and Libocedrus decurrens) and describing the American method of conversion, seasoning, and treatment. Relating this experience to the development of the pencil industry in India, suggestions are made for the establishment of the pencil-slat industry there, stressing especially the suitability of such Indian species as Cedrus deodara and Cupressus torulosa.
544. White, L.L. 1907. Production of red cedar for pencil wood. Circ. 102. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 19 p.
Describes the wood and its uses, with species range, silvical characteristics, and reproduction.
Also describes logging methods and proposals for management.
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545. Alemdag, I.S. 1983. Mass equations and merchantability factors for Ontario softwoods. Inf. Rep. PI-X-23. Canada: Petawawa National Forestry Institute. 24 p. 3 refs.
Equations are given for oven-dry biomass of stem wood, stem bark, live branches, twigs plus needles, dead branches, and total above-ground biomass of Pinus banksiana, P. strobus, P. resinosa, Picea mariana, P. glauca, Abies balsamea, Larix laricina, Thuja occidentalis, Juniperus virginiana, and Tsuga canadensis, based on diameter outside bark (d.o.b.) and total height. Equations for predicting the percent of merchantable and unmerchantable components are also given, based on merchantable top diameter and d.o.b., or merchantable height and total height.
546. Anonymous. 1942. Plywood (hardwood and eastern redcedar). Commercial standard CS 35-42. (2d ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. National Burea of Standards. 24 p.
This standard provides minimum specifications for four grades of hardwood plywood made with three different types of bondage having a high, moderate, and low resistance to moisture. It covers tests, standard thicknesses, widths and lengths, tolerances, workmanship, packing, inspection, and nomenclature and definitions.
547. Anonymous. 1955. Three North American 'cedar' timbers. Holz-Zentralblatt. 81:132-133. 8 refs. German.
Describes Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Juniperus virginiana, and Libocedrus decurrens, including nomenclature, timber properties, uses, and grading rules.
548. Beckwith, J.R., III. 1976. An illustration of wood color measurement. Res. Pap. 74. Georgia: Georgia Forestry Research Council. 6 p. 17 refs.
Specimens from 21 tree species groups were examined spectrophotometrically. Average colors were plotted on a chromaticity diagram and described in terms of dominant wavelength, purity, and luminosity. A means of describing the variability of color was also developed. U.S. manufacturers of color measuring equipment are listed.
549. Betts, H.S. 1942. American woods. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1942-44.
550. Betts, H.S. 1953. American woods. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 4. 7 refs. (Revised 1954).
Describes silvicultural characters, wood properties, and uses of Juniperus virginiana.
551. Browne, F.L.; Rietz, R.C. 1949. Exudation of pitch and oils in wood. Res. Rep. 1735. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. 11 p.
Pitch exudation is most successfully prevented by heat treatment at a high temperature for long enough to volatilize the turpentine, leaving the pitch with so little turpentine that it will remain hard at any temperature. Recommended kiln schedules to attain this are given for different species. Whether solvent seasoning, which removes a large proportion of pitch from sapwood during drying, will replace kiln drying for pine and similar woods will depend largely on the value of the extractives and other economic factors. Discoloration of paint over heartwood is largely caused by high moisture content of the wood during or soon after painting, and rarely occurs on boards kept below 10 or 12 percent moisture content while the paint is drying; some paints are more easily discolored than others. Spirit varnishes can be used as sealers to prevent discoloration. The general remedy for the prevention of exudation of the volatile oils of cedars is a suitable heat treatment; modifications are necessary for eastern redcedar and Spanish cedar in order to retain enough oil to produce the aromatic smell. Recommendations are made to lumber producers for preventing pitch and oil exudations by seasoning and to lumber users for treating these if they occur.
552. Ferguson, E.R.; Lawson, E.R. 1974. Eastern redcedar: an American wood. WO-260. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 6 p.
553. Grosenbaugh, L.R.; Arend, J.L. 1949. International rule modified for small eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) logs. Journal of Forestry. 47(9): 736, 738-739.
554. Hanks, L.F. 1979. Cubic-foot tree volumes and product recoveries for eastern redcedar in the Ozarks. Res. Note NE-283. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 4 p.
Volume prediction equations are derived from data of diameter outside bark (d.o.b.) and height from stump to 3 inches d.o.b. from 91 Juniperus virginiana trees of 5-12 inches d.o.b., and tables of gross tree volume (volume u.b. from stump to 3 inches d.o.b.), cant volume, and sawmill residue volume are given.
555. McGinnes, E.A., Jr. 1975. Influence of incandescent and fluorescent light on the color of unfinished heartwood of black walnut and eastern redcedar. Wood Science. 7(4): 270-279. 10 refs.
Stresses the inadequacy of present knowledge of color changes in wood, and describes the design and construction of equipment to evaluate the effects of interior lighting on the color properties of wood. Incandescent and fluorescent lights significantly changed the spectral properties of small samples of wood of Juniperus virginiana and Juglans nigra. The changes in reflectance of all the samples, which were more pronounced after 15 weeks than after 5 weeks, were greatest and negative in the blue and red portions of the spectrum, giving a 'yellowing' effect. Redcedar was affected more than walnut. Previous extraction with methanol reduced the color changes.
556. McGinnes, E.A., Jr.; Dingeldein, T.W. 1971. Effect of light, extraction, and storage on color and tackiness of clear-finished eastern redcedar. Forest Products Journal. 21(1): 53-60. 7 refs.
Small specimens of Juniperus virginiana wood (used for the manufacture of small decorative objects because of its bright red heartwood enclosing bands of lighter sapwood) suffered considerable color changes when exposed for 120 hours to visible and, even more so, to ultraviolet light, but not when exposed to infrared light. Extraction with methanol and, to a lesser extent, the use of a polyvinyl-alcohol sealer, reduced color changes. Only the methanol treatment prevented softening of the nitrocellulose lacquer used. Electron-microscope photos are presented of the extractive incrustations of heartwood cells.
557. McGinnes, E.A., Jr.; Melcarek, P.K. 1976. Equipment for studying the color characteristics of wood at the cellular level. Wood Science. 9(1): 46-50. 8 refs.
Describes, with photographs, equipment for monitoring both reflectance and transmittance properties of the visible spectrum of wood at the cellular level. There are three separate units: a light source and wavelength monitoring system; a light microscope with fluorite optics and facilities for measuring the programming area and shape of the microscopic field; and a data sensing the read-out system suitable for digital display or computer tape preparation. Preliminary investigations of transmittance properties of sapwood and heartwood of Juniperus virginiana are presented with suggestions for future studies.
558. Schwartz, H. 1949. Structural boards from cedar bark. Paper Trade Journal. 128(24): 27-28.
Low-density insulating boards and hardboards were made from eastern cedar (Juniperus virginiana) and western redcedar (Thuja plicata) barks and tested for strength, specific gravity, and moisture resistance. Low density boards of eastern cedar were within the specified range for tensile strength and specific gravity; those from western redcedar alone did not show adequate tensile strength but did so when 10 percent sulphite pulp screenings were added. The water resistance of most of the boards was good and could be controlled within limits by sizing. Hardboards from cedar barks did not meet current strength requirements for wood-fiber hardboards.
559. Stajduhar, F. 1982. Foreign timbers in European woodworking industry. Drvna Industrija. 33: 3-6. Serbo-Croatian.
Brief notes are given, in separate issues of the journal, on the characteristics and properties of No. 3/4 African pencil cedar (Juniperus procera); No. 5/6 American redcedar (Juniperus virginiana).
560. Veer, J.J.G.; King, F.W. 1963. Moisture blistering of paints on house siding. Rep. 1024. Canada: Canadian Department of Forestry. 25 p. 21 refs.
Laboratory studies showed that free water is necessary for blistering to occur, and that water vapor alone does not cause blistering. Wood species was found to be one of the factors affecting susceptibility to blistering, which decreased in the order Thuja plicata, Pseudotsuga taxifolia, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Pinus strobus, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus resinosa, and Picea spp.
561. Zimmerman, A.H.; Potts, S.M. 1952. Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) volume tables for the
Tennessee Valley. Tech. Note. Nashville, TN: Tennessee Valley Authority. 8 p.
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Repellents and Inhibitors
562. Adams, R.P. 1989. Bioresources of termiticides from junipers. Phase 1. Waco, TX: Bio-Renewables Institute, Inc.; Washington, DC: National Science Foundation: Small Business Innovation Research Programs. 3 p.
The purpose of the research was to determine the termiticidal activities in various extractive fractions from juniper wood and leaves. No-choice, treated paper trials showed termiticidal activities in: hexane extracts from the heartwood of both species and in the methanol extract from the J. virginiana wood; hexane extracts from the leaves of both species and in the methanol extract from J. virginiana leaves. Next, the extracts were impregnated into yellow pine blocks at known concentrations. No-choice trials revealed that the highest termiticidal activities were in hexane leaf extract and volatile leaf oil of J. virginiana and the methanol extract from the wood of J. virginiana. Choice trials (treated and untreated blocks available for feeding) resulted in a few termites being killed but also showed that almost all the juniper extracts have anti-feedant properties, as the termites generally avoided the treated blocks. Because the hexane leaf extracts contain considerable waxes, treating wood with these extracts renders wood water-proof, which presents another defense against termites and rotting.
563. Adams, R.P.; McDaniel, C.A.; Carter, F.L. 1988. Termiticidal activities in the heartwood, bark/sapwood and leaves of Juniperus spp., from the USA. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 16(5): 453-456.
Twelve taxa of Juniperus from the United States were investigated for termiticidal activities of the heartwood, bark/sapwood, and leaves. All taxa exhibited termiticidal activities for the fresh heartwood sawdusts. All except Juniperus scopulorum showed high termiticidal activities for the bark/sapwood sawdusts. The activity in the sawdusts could be removed by washing with hexane followed by methanol for about half of the taxa. Both hexane and methanol (sequential) extracts of the heartwoods showed termiticidal activities. Hexane and methanol (sequential) extracts of intact leaves displayed termiticidal activities for most of the taxa. (The following species are also discussed: J. ashei, J. californica, J. deppeana, J. erythrocarpa, J. monosperma, J. occidentalis var. australis, J. osteosperma, J. pinchotii, and J. virginiana.)
564. Appel, A.G.; Mack, T.P. 1989. Repellency of milled aromatic eastern redcedar to domiciliary cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae and Blattidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 82(1): 152-155. 21 refs.
Repellency and toxicity of milled aromatic eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) flakeboard were evaluated against Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and P. fuliginosa. Cedar flakeboard was repellent to B. germanica in Ebeling choice-box tests but was not repellent to either P. americana or P. fuliginosa. The degree of repellency for B. germanica increased linearly (P < 0.05) with surface area of cedar in the choice box, but in no case were more than 63 percent of the cockroaches repelled. Cedar boards did not cause cockroach mortality in continuous-exposure tests. Cedar flake may be useful as a repellent in the integrated pest management of indoor cockroaches.
565. Carter, F.L.; Smythe, R.V. 1974. Feeding and survival responses of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) to extractives of wood from 11 coniferous genera. Holzforschung. 28(2): 41-45. 18 refs. German.
In a laboratory experiment in which R. flavipes was force-fed on heartwood blocks of 11 species, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Juniperus sp. (J. virginiana), Thuja plicata, Taxodium distichum, Sequoia sempervirens, and Pinus ponderosa were least favored by the termites. In a choice test, the same species proved unfavorable, except for C. lawsoniana, which was omitted because of its toxicity. Some variation in favorability was found in wood of T. plicata and Tsuga heterophylla from more than one source. In force-feeding tests on sawdusts, solvent-extracted sawdusts, and the corresponding wood extracts on filter paper, overall survival was best on test materials of Pseudotsuga menziesii, Abies lasiocarpa, and Larix occidentalis.
566. Ferenczy, L. 1956. TI: occurrence of antibacterial compounds in seeds and fruits. Acta Biologica. 6(3/4): 317-323. 25 refs.
Species inhibiting growth of Gram-positive micro-organisms included Abies alba, Picea glauca, Picea abies var. chlorocarpa, Pinus nigra, P. strobus, Pseudotsuga taxifolia, Juniperus chinensis, J. virginiana, and Thuja occidentalis. Fraxinus excelsior and F. pennsylvanica inhibited both Gram-positive and Gram-negative groups.
567. Hartwell, J.L.; Johnson, J.M.; Fitzgerald, D.B.; Belkin, M. 1953. Podophyllotoxin from Juniperus species; savinin. American Chemical Society. 75(1): 235-236.
Podophyllotoxin, a tumor-damaging component of podophyllin, was isolated from Savin (dried needles of an evergreen stated to be J. sabina), J. virginiana, J. lucayana, J. scopulorum , and J. sabina var. tamariscifolia, male plant. Savinin, a new substance inactive towards tumors, was also obtained from Savin.
568. Heston, W.E. 1975. Testing for possible effects of cedar (Juniperus virginiana) wood shavings and diet on occurrence of mammary gland tumors and hepatomas in C3H-A and C3H-AvyfB mice (Bedding). Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 54(4): 1011-1014.
569. Kupchan, S.M.; Hemingway, J.C.; Knox, J.R. 1965. Tumor inhibitors VII. Podophyllotoxin, the active principle of Juniperus virginiana. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 54(4): 659-660. 3 refs.
Alcoholic extracts of leaves and twigs showed significant inhibitory activity; similar activity was also shown by extracts of other species, e.g., J. occidentalis, J. scopulorum, and J. procera. Systematic fractionation of the extract of J. virginiana led to the isolation and characterization of podophyllotoxin as the active principle.
570. McDaniel, C.A.; Klocke, J.A.; Balandrin, M.F. 1989. Major antitermitic wood extractive components of eastern redcedar, Juniperus virginiana. Material und Organismen. 24(4): 301-313. 25 refs.
The major extractive components of J. virginiana were initially examined by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. They were separated by chemical partitioning, silica gel column chromatography, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The structures of the major toxic components were verified by infrared and H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Bioassays were performed using Reticulitermes flavipes, R. virginicus, and Coptotermes formosanus. The antitermitic activity was primarily contained in the neutral extractive fraction, with the sesquiterpene alcohol widdrol exhibiting the highest toxicity. Cedrol also exhibited some toxic activity, but less than that of widdrol.
571. Sabine, J.R. 1975. Exposure to an environment containing the aromatic redcedar, Juniperus virginiana: procarcinogenic, enzyme-inducing and insecticidal effects (Mice, Elasmolomus sordidus, Plodia interpunctella, Tyrophagus putrescentiae). Toxicology. 5(2): 221-235.
572. Sighamony, S.; Anees, I.; Chandrakala, T.S.; Osmani, Z. 1984. Natural products as repellents for Tribolium castaneum Herbst. International Pest Control. 26(6): 156-157. 6 refs.
When oils of clove, cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana), and karanja (Pongamia glabra) and an acetone extract of black pepper (Piper nigrum) were tested in India by a choice method to determine their repellent effects on adults of Tribolium castaneum, the cedarwood, karanja, and pepper products were found to be more potent than the standard repellent dimethyl phthalate. Karanja oil and pepper extract were rated as the most repellent at the highest concentration tested (10.38 mg/cm3) but were less repellent at the lowest concentration tested (2.59 mg/cm3). Karanja oil appeared to retain its repellent effect strongly over the 8 weeks of the experimental period.
573. Sighamony, S.; Anees, I.; Chandrakala, T.; Osmani, Z. 1986. Efficacy of certain indigenous plant products as grain protectants against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.). Journal of Stored Products Research. 22(1): 21-23. 6 refs.
Oils of clove, cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana), and karanja (Pongamia glabra [P. pinnata]), at doses of 25-100 p.p.m., and acetone extracts of pepper (Piper nigrum) provided protection to wheat against the curculionid Sitophilus oryzae and the bostrichid Rhyzopertha dominica for up to 60 and 30 days of exposure, respectively. Initially, and after 15 days, all the oils gave complete mortality of S. oryzae. The persistence of toxicity was ranked clove, pepper, karanja, and cedarwood. With R. dominica, both toxicity and persistence were lower and were ranked pepper, karanja, cedarwood, and clove. The viability and water absorption of treated seeds were normal.
574. Sweetman, H.L.; Benson, D.A.; Kelley, R.W., Jr. 1953. Efficacy of aroma of cedar in control of fabric pests. Journal of Economic Entomology. 46(1): 29-33. 7 refs.
The aroma of cedar oil (from the heartwood of Juniperus virginiana) in a commercial cedar plaster
had no repellent or toxic effects on Tineola bisselliella, Attagenus piceus, or Anthrenus vorax. No
definite conclusion could be reached concerning the possible protective value of the aroma of cedar
in well-fitting chests.
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575. Fergusson, J.A. 1938. Comparative durability of shingles and shingle nails. Bull. 353. State College, PA: Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station. 25 p.
Tests made under favorable atmospheric conditions indicate that shingles of untreated redcedar and redwood were durable for 25 years as were shingles of southern yellow pine that had been treated with creosote. Shingles of treated chestnut were durable while those of treated pitch pine were not durable. The preservative treatment materially lengthened the life of shingles of durable wood, resulting in less warping, splitting, and surface weathering, and shingle nails lasted longer when used with treated shingles.
576. Hemmerly, T.E. 1970. Economic uses of eastern red cedar. Economic Botany. 24(1): 39-41. 7 refs.
Juniperus virginiana is now of minor economic importance in the eastern U.S.A. because of its limited availability, and is confined to the following uses (in order of decreasing value): fence posts; furniture; cedar oil; ornamental planting; Christmas trees; souvenirs; and kindling, shavings, etc.
577. Kubes, G.J. 1984. The effect of wood species on kraft recovery furnace operation - an investigation using differential thermal analysis. Journal of Pulp and Paper Science. 10(3): 63-68. 8 refs.
Activation energies of spent liquors were calculated for the following Canadian species: black spruce, jack pine, balsam fir, coastal western hemlock and Douglas fir, interior redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), poplar, sugar maple, and white birch (Betula papyrifera) and three mixtures, viz., eastern softwoods, western softwoods, and hardwoods. Redcedar and jack pine had higher activation energies than other softwoods; this was attributed to the type and quantity of resin in the wood. Sugar maple and white birch had lower activation energies than poplar.
578. Laudani, H.; Clark, P.H. 1954. The effects of red, white and South American cedar chests on the various stages of the webbing clothes moth and the black carpet beetle. Journal of Economic Entomology. 47(6): 1107-1110.
Newly made chests of Juniperus virginiana (24), Chamaecyparis thyoides (16-20), Cedrela odorata (16), and Pinus strobus (control), were tested over 3 1/2 years for their toxicity at various ages to all stages of Tineola bisselliella and Attagenus piceus. All cedars had inhibiting effects on eggs (if laid in the chest), on larvae (particularly the younger) of both insects, and on adults of the moth, but these effects are only partial and are early lost.
579. Maga, J.A.; Chen, Z. 1985. Pyrazine composition of wood smoke as influenced by wood source and smoke generation variables. Flavour Fragrance Journal. 1(1): 37-42. 46 refs.
In the context of using wood smoke in food processing, results are reported from a study of Quercus alba, Q. rubra, Juglans nigra, Castanea dentata, Malus pumila, Prunus speciosa, Alnus glutinosa, Sequoia sempervirens, Populus tremuloides, Betula alba, Acer saccharum, Juniperus virginiana, Carya laciniosa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Pinus contorta.
580. Plaster, K.; Johnson, B.D.; Sifford, D.H. 1992. Zeolite cracking of Juniperus virginiana (eastern redcedar) ether extracts into high-grade fuel products. SAAS Bull. 5. Cookeville, TN: Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Southern Association of Agriculture Scientists: 43-47.
581. Walters, C.S.; McMillan, F.W. 1955. Report on Project 301-C. Preservative treatment of fence posts with toxic oil solutions by cold-soaking, dipping and brushing. For. Note. 52, 54. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station: 4.
Gives tabulated data on service tests of green ash, river birch, cottonwood, sassafras, sycamore, tupelo, willow, eastern redcedar, shortleaf pine, and loblolly pine, treated with different concentrations of Cu naphthenate and PCP.
582. Walters, C.S.; Meek, W.L. 1951. The cold-soak preservative treatment of eastern redcedar. For. Note 27. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station: 1.