An Annotated Bibliography of Eastern Redcedar
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227. Afanasiev, M.M. 1949. A study of red cedar plantations in North Central Oklahoma. Bull. T-34. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University Agricultural Experiment Station. 16 p. 8 refs.
Two plantations of Juniperus virginiana have been established and maintained successfully on sites that would commonly be classed as poor. Survival was generally satisfactory (about 80 percent in 4 years) when 1-1 planting stock was used. The use of 1-2 planting stock resulted in comparatively heavy mortality. Most losses occurred during the first year after planting. High clay content of the soil had a detrimental effect on height growth. Heavy thinning failed to accelerate height growth during the first 2 years after treatment. Direct sowing was a failure.
228. Afanasiev, M.M. 1949. Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) and pine (Pinus echinata, P. ponderosa, P. nigra var. austriaca, P. sylvestris, P. densiflora, P. thunbergii) as farm trees for Oklahoma. Bull. B-331. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University Agricultural Experiment Station. 18 p.
229. Afanasiev, M.M.; Engstrom, A.; Johnson, E.W. 1959. Effects of planting dates and storage [of stock] on survival of eastern redcedar in Central and Western Oklahoma. Bull. B-527. Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State University Agricultural Experiment Station. 19 p.
Reports an attempt, based on the results of planting Juniperus virginiana during 3 consecutive years from 1955, mainly to determine (1) the existence and extent of an optimum planting period, and (2) the effects of practical short-term storage of stock from the nursery. In addition, the effects of some elements of weather and soil on plant mortality were studied, and a comparative evaluation of the use of potted stock in field planting, and of stock planted the same day as lifted, was made. Using the slit method of planting in all cases, thirty 2-year seedlings were planted 1 foot apart in three random 10-tree lots 2 days after being lifted in the nursery; a second 30 plants remained packed in waterproof paper and sphagnum moss for 1 week before planting. This procedure was followed at four sites. The optimum periods of planting proved to be between mid-December and mid-March, though this did not preclude successful results before and after those dates, and high survival was observed in individual lots planted in the dormant season. The wide variation of soil and weather conditions precludes the fixing of specific dates for field planting but, in general, planting in January and February is more successful than earlier or later. The mean survival rates of trees planted on arrival and after a week's storage were 71 and 70 percent, respectively, but, despite the very slight difference, packaged stock should be kept moist and well sheltered to avoid injury from drying or temperature extremes. During the low-precipitation seasons of 1956 and 1957, the combined mean survival of potted plants was 96 compared with 70 percent for bare-rooted stock. This advantage was not apparent for the good-rainfall year, when 94 percent of bare-rooted stock survived. Survival for stock planted straight after lifting was 10 percent greater than that for stock planted 2 days after lifting or after 7 further days of storage.
230. Anonymous. 1943. The shelterbelt. Chronica Botanica. 7: 430-431.
The program begun in 1934 for the establishment of shelterbelts in an effort to reclaim the agricultural region of the Great Plains of the United States from wind erosion has met with outstanding success. The 190,000,000 trees planted by the Forest Service and the Work Projects Administration up to the end of 1941 already give protection to 4,000,000 acres of farm land, and there has been a marked increase of wildlife in the area, particularly of game and insectivorous birds. The shelterbelts are not of fixed width or orientation, but are varied to suit local conditions. The species used also vary according to the locality. Some of the more common shrubs and trees planted in the shelterbelt areas are buffaloberry, golden currant, American plum, chokecherry, golden willow, white willow, boxelder, American elm, bur oak, green ash, cottonwood, black locust, black walnut, Osage orange, sycamore, Texas walnut, blue spruce, western white spruce, jack pine, shortleaf pine, Rocky Mountain juniper, and eastern redcedar. In most cases 8 1/2 acres of shelterbelt are sufficient to protect a 160-acre farm.
231. Bagley, W.T.; Loerch, K.A. 1956. Diuron for weed control in new windbreak plantations. Proceedings, 13th Annual North Central Weed Control Conference: 66-67.
The effects were studied of late April sprays of 10, 20, and 40 lb/acre 80 percent diuron on freshly planted trees. Elaeagnus angustifolia was easily injured, while Ulmus pumila and Celtis occidentalis, though also easily injured, showed some ability to recover after low concentrations. Juniperus virginiana and Pinus ponderosa were moderately resistant to injury. Gleditsia triacanthos and Fraxinus pennsylvanica were highly resistant. Weed control was excellent at 20-40 lb/acre, and satisfactory at 10 lb/acre.
232. Borovikov, V.M. 1949. The Sochi Arboretum and its role in park arboriculture and mountain forestry (on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus). Botanicheskii Zhurnal. 34(2): 203-204. Russian.
This is a brief note on this arboretum, which is regarded as an important trial area for exotics, especially subtropical species that are likely to do well in the Black Sea coast regions, since it lies near the northern limit of the subtropical zone. The arboretum belongs to the Sochi Research Station for Subtropical Forestry and Arboriculture (NILOS), which is also conducting experiments on exotics suitable for the montane forests of the region. Of these trials, in the Krasnaya Polyana and Loosk forests, the most interesting is said to be a 10-year-old trial in the former locality, at 550 m elevation, of Pseudotsuga taxifolia spp. mucronata, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Cedrus deodara, Cryptomeria japonica, Libocedrus decurrens, Taxodium distichum, Juniperus virginiana, Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Carya pecan, C. ovata, Ailanthus altissima, and others. Results are said to be successful, but no further indication is given of the performance of the individual species.
233. Bunger, M.T.; Thomson, H.J. 1938. Root development as a factor in the success or failure of windbreak trees in the Southern High Plains. Journal of Forestry. 36: 790-803.
234. Bunusevac, T.; Antic, M. 1951. Effect of afforestation with various tree species on edaphic conditions in the Deliblato Sands area. Glasnik Sumske Fak., Beograd. 3: 129-160. 5 refs. Serbo-Croatian.
The Deliblato Sands in the Vojvodina (northeast Yugoslavia) have an area of 24,854 ha and are characterized by a series of parallel dunes in the direction northwest-southeast. The highest points reach nearly 200 m. The annual precipitation is 653 mm, the bulk of which falls in May-August. The mean annual temperature ranges from 9.5 to 11o C. Late frosts persist until the second half of June, and autumn frosts start in early October. A dry southeast wind blows during the colder half of the year, not seldom for 2-3 weeks on end. Afforestation began in 1808 when F. Bachoffen worked out the first plan. The following species have been used: (1) Pinus sylvestris, (2) P. nigra, (3) Robinia pseudoacacia, (4) Juniperus virginiana, (5) Fraxinus americana, and also F. excelsior, F. ornus, Pinus strobus, P. banksiana, P. jeffreyi, Sophora japonica, Populus nigra, P. alba, P. canescens, P. canadensis, P. bachofeni, Ailanthus altissima, Acer saccharum, Prunus serotina, P. mahaleb, Gleditsia triacanthos, and Morus alba. Stands of the first five species mentioned were the object of investigation, based on the assumption that all stands observed had the same climatic and soil conditions. Besides mensurational data for the stands, the following pedological determinations were made: CaCO3, pH (in water), humus, assimilable P2O5, and assimilable K2O; soil profiles were also analyzed. The CaCO3 content of the soil varies within very wide limits (e.g., 4-15 percent). The pH value for the top layer of soil varies within relatively small limits (6.94 for (3), and 7.81 for one stand of (2)). The humus content was 21 percent for (3); and for two stands each of the following: 20 and 19 percent (5); 17 and 13 percent (2); and 11 and 9 percent (1). Soil under (3) was the richest of all in P2O5 and K2O, figures for the latter being 29.8 mg. K2O/100 g for (3), compared with 11.3 mg for one stand of (2). No marked effect of stands on soil particle size could be detected.
235. Clark, F.B. 1954. Forest planting on strip-mined land in Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. Tech. Pap. CS -141. Columbus, OH: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Central States Forest Experiment Station. 33 p. 10 refs.
In a species-suitability test, results 6 years after planting suggest that Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. lanceolata, Juglans nigra, Juniperus virginiana, Platanus occidentalis, Quercus macrocarpa, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus deltoides, and Prunus serotina will do well in suitable conditions. Mortality was insignificant after the first growing season. Survival was poorest in bottoms and on ridge-tops and best on north- and east-facing slopes. The average survival of all species after the first growing season was best in areas where 41-60 percent of the ground was covered with natural vegetation and poorest where less than 20 percent was covered. Acidity is of primary importance, and areas with toxic acidity (pH 4.0) must be avoided. Areas with a high percent of small soil particles are more subject to erosion and should be allowed to stabilize 2-5 years before planting. Survival, growth, and moisture relations were better on undisturbed than on graded banks. Tentative recommendations are made on spacing and planting methods, post and Christmas tree plantings, and mixed plantings.
236. Comis, D.L. 1983. Living fences keep snow off the road [Use of eastern redcedar trees, windbreaks used for prevention of snowdrifts closing highways]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. Soil Water Conservation. 4(9): 8-9.
237. Costin, E. 1956. J. virginiana a suitable species for the afforestation of degraded soils. Revista Padurilor. 71(4): 214-221. 10 refs. Rumanian.
On the basis of experimental data from Rumania and elsewhere, recommends the use of this species as a soil improver to prepare degraded soils for later planting with more valuable conifers.
238. Costin, E. 1964. Ecological conditions of forest crops on littoral sands of the Danube delta. Institutul de Cercetari Forestiere. Bucharest. 154 p. 82 refs. Rumanian.
Describes in detail the soil and climate, with particular reference to soil water regime. Some account is then given of the requirements and performance of the species that have been used for the afforestation of these sands (Populus X euramericana, P. alba, P. canescens, Alnus glutinosa, Robinia pseudoacacia, Gleditsia triacanthos, Acer negundo, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Hippophae rhamnoides, Taxodium distichum, Pinus nigra, and Juniperus virginiana).
239. Deitschmann, G.H. 1950. Seedling survival and height growth on graded and ungraded strip-mined land in southern Illinois. Sta. Notes CS-62. Columbus, OH: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Central States Forest Experiment Station. 2 p.
Experimental plantings were made of 17 species on leveled and unleveled spoil sites. An examination after 2 years showed that all species except black locust had made slightly more height growth on the unleveled sites. The third year confirmed this result and revealed little difference between survival on leveled or unleveled sites for the species (green and white ash, black locust, sweet gum, loblolly pine, eastern redcedar, and shortleaf pine) most often used in afforesting spoil areas in Illinois.
240. Dickerson, J.D.; Woodruff, N.P. 1975. Establishing windbreaks (Juniperus virginiana, Pinus sylvestris) in semiarid areas by altering the microclimate or supplying additional water. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 22: 302-309.
241. Dickerson, J.D.; Woodruff, N.P.; Banbury, E.E. 1976. Techniques for improving tree survival and growth in semiarid areas. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 31: 2, 63-66. 38 refs.
Describes studies in 1971 to evaluate seven systems for supplying additional water to, or altering the microclimate of, Juniperus virginiana and Pinus sylvestris planting sites in northwest Kansas. Water-collecting treatments (construction of ridges round cleared, leveled areas of 50 x 100 or 50 x 50 feet to concentrate run-off on the tree rows), drip irrigation, and protection by snow fences increased growth of J. virginiana by up to 40 percent and increased survival; a shade treatment increased survival, but not growth. P. sylvestris responded less than J. virginiana to the treatments; survival and growth of this species were best with protection by a snow fence or drip irrigation. In the control planting, none of the P. sylvestris trees and only 70 percent of the J. virginiana trees survived. It is suggested that effective windbreaks may be established more rapidly in semi-arid zones by such measures.
242. George, E.J. 1939. Tree planting on the drier sections of the Northern Great Plains. Journal of Forestry. 37: 695-698.
Eastern redcedar often reproduces from seed carried by birds.
243. George, E.J. 1965. Methods of improving conifer survivals. Tree Planters Notes. 71: 6-13. 9 refs.
Reviews long-term tests of methods of establishing conifers (chiefly in shelterbelts) in the northern Great Plains, where low rainfall is accompanied by low humidity and high evaporation. The results show that good stands can be established in these conditions. Five species (Pinus ponderosa, Picea pungens, P. glauca var. densata, Juniperus virginiana, and J. scopulorum), planted on 82 plots that received no treatment, had 80-100 percent survival on 65 plots and 50-79 percent on the other 17. The importance of careful handling of stock from the time of lifting in the nursery is emphasized. Recommended methods include application of water/wax emulsion and potting for 1 year before planting out.
244. Gordienko, I.I. 1962. Results of the introduction of certain plants on the Olesskij sands (Lower Dnieper). Botanicheskii Zhurnal. 19(3): 85-92. 7 refs. Russian.
By autumn 1960, only six of the 25 tree and shrub species introduced on quartz sandhills (devoid of humus) over the previous 9 years were surviving, viz., Juniperus virginiana, Maackia amurensis, Alnus incana, A. hybrida, Pinus mugo, and P. pinaster. Of these, the four last-named, as well as A. glutinosa, are held to be of great practical importance for afforestation of sandy areas.
245. Gorshenin, N.M. 1940. Results of investigations in 1938 by the All-Union Research Institute for Rural Melioration with the Aid of Forestry (VNIALMI). Goslestekhizdat. Moscow. 1940. 172 p. Rumanian.
Reports on the investigations of the Institute, in various parts of the U.S.S.R., on shelterbelts, the melioration of sands, erosion control, nursery practice, treatment and storage of seed, sowing, mechanization of silvicultural work, forest protection, and the acclimatization and selection of trees. Narrow shelterbelts, open in their lower part and consisting of only two rows of trees--so-called avenue belts, since the trees are usually planted on either side of a road--were again shown to have a beneficial effect on the distribution of the snow cover and on wind velocity in the adjacent fields. Observations in the Rostov region confirmed the view that on the dry sands there it was advisable to use conifers (Pinus sylvestris, P. banksiana, Juniperus virginiana, etc.) in the formation of shelterbelts, and to confine oak, poplar, and other broadleaved windbreaks to low ground where ground water is found near the surface of the soil. In 1938, a year of drought, it was observed that 5-year-old hybrids of Siberian and Japanese Larch were highly drought-resistant. These hybrids are also frost-resistant.
246. Gruschow, G.F. 1948. A test of methods of planting eastern redcedar in the Virginia Piedmont. Journal of Forestry. 46(11): 842-843.
Juniperus virginiana 1-0 stock planted out by seven different methods (holes with scalped spots 12 inches and 24 inches diameter, the latter with and without lime; mattock slit with and bar slit without a scalped spot; bar slit in contour furrows with and without lime) showed poor survival at the end of 4 years, with no significant differences between different methods.
247. Jiang, G.Y.; Liu, D.S. 1985. A preliminary report of a planting trial with Juniperus virginiana on rocky mountains. Forestry Science and Technology, Linye Kexue Tongxun. 7: 12-13. Chinese.
In 1978, 2-year-old seedlings were planted on a rocky hillside in Xiao County, Anhui Province, with Platycladus orientalis for comparison. A survey made in autumn of the current year showed that the survival rate of J. virginiana was 95 percent while that of P. orientalis was 62 percent. Further investigation in 1983 showed that the average tree height of J. virginiana at the top, middle, and foot of the hill was 1.6, 2.71, and 2.85 m, respectively, and average collar diameter was 5.7, 7.9, and 7.9 cm respectively, which were 2X those of P. orientalis.
248. Lindbo, M.T.; Heintz, R.H.; Lana, E.P. 1972. A survey of growth and survival of shelter-belts in the Douglas Creek recreation area. Res. Rep. 38. Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University Agricultural Experiment Station. 14 p. 23 refs.
Reports results of a survey of 20 shelterbelts planted in 1951-1956 in North Dakota. Condition, percent survival, height, d.b.h., and diameter growth are given for Ulmus americana, U. pumila, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Elaeagnus angustifolia. Damage by insects and infection by disease were widespread in the elms, particularly U. americana. Acer negundo, Populus deltoides, Celtis occidentalis, and Juniperus virginiana were also planted, but did not show adequate growth or survival. Some possibilities for developing the shelterbelts for recreational purposes are discussed.
249. Lorio, P.L., Jr. 1963. Tree survival and growth on Iowa coal-spoil materials. Dissertation Abstracts International, B. Science and Engineering. 23(10): 3583-3584.
Studies were made on 13 species planted 7-8 years ago. Green ash showed the highest survival, but cottonwood grew more than twice as high; both species appeared suitable for a wide range of spoil materials. Eastern redcedar proved best adapted to calcareous sites. Pines were adapted to dry, strongly to moderately acid sites; Virginia, jack, and pitch pine did best. Results of regression analyses on the relationships of tree growth to chemical and other characteristics of the materials are summarized for the different species.
250. Lowry, G.L. 1960. Conifer establishment on coal spoils as influenced by certain site factors and organic additions at planting time. Soil Science Society of America. 24(4): 316-318. 6 refs.
Eight conifer species were planted on Ohio spoil banks at five locations of widely different site characteristics. At any one location, five tree species and three root mulch treatments were tried. Mulch treatments were (a) no treatment, (b) steam-sterilized sawdust, and (c) unsteamed sawdust. One pint of mulch was placed in the tree root zone at planting time. Results of 2-year measurements indicated significant survival differences between tree species on all areas where average survival was more than 10 percent. On acid spoils, pitch pine appeared best in terms of both survival and total height. Jack pine, white pine, and ponderosa pine were intermediate, while shortleaf pine was consistently poor. On mildly acid clay spoils, northern white cedar was best, while eastern redcedar, ponderosa pine, and jack pine were intermediate. Significant differences due to mulch treatments were noted, especially on very strongly acid sandy soils where (c) showed a 90 percent increase in survival over (a); (b) resulted in some increase in survival on sandy areas, but a decrease in survival when used on areas high in silt and clay. No height differences resulted from these treatments. Certain site and soil factors were studied to determine their effect on survival. Of the factors studied, only moisture equivalent, sand content, and reaction were significant. A prediction equation for survival is given.
251. Lypa, A.L. 1949. Decorative town and roadside plantings in the Don Basin. Priroda. 38(1): 48-58. 30 refs. Russian.
Contains lists of recommended trees and shrubs for planting in streets, squares and parks, on roadsides, etc. A special list is given of species tolerating gases and smoke, for planting in mining and factory areas, including the following trees: Thuja occidentalis, T. orientalis, Juniperus virginiana, Acer negundo, Tilia var.Crimean, T. tomentosa, Populus canadensis, P. simonii, P. nigra, P. nigra var. italica, P. laurifolia, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Gleditsia.
252. Malureanu, S. 1968. Natural regeneration from seed of some forest tree species in the arboretum of Mihaesti. Revista Padurilor. 83(1): 15-18. 2 refs. Rumanian.
Presents notes on natural regeneration at 430 m alternates in Rumania of Abies alba, A. nordmanniana, Tsuga canadensis, Juniperus virginiana, Juglans nigra, and Robinia pseudoacacia.
253. Mamyuk, I.S. 1946. Reclamation of the Chir sands. Moscow: Sel'khozgiz: 125-142. Russian.
These sands, covering 900,000 ha along the left bank of the Chir (a tributary of the Don) in Rostov Province, form three terraces with very complex soils, of which the most common are (a) alluvial meadow solonets, with a humified layer 30-40 cm thick over days with a low water table (over 3 m deep) on the first terrace; (b) sandy-loam leached southern chernozem, with a humified layer 40-60 cm thick and a water table at 5 m or deeper on the second terrace; (c) sandy-loam southern chernozem, with a humified layer 50-60 cm thick and ground water at 1-15 m deep on the third terrace. Eroded sandy soils and soils buried in sand drifts are common especially on the second and third terraces. Trials of tree species in plantations and shelterbelts have been in progress since 1907. Juniperus virginiana has grown almost as well as Pinus sylvestris, has shown a wide soil tolerance and excellent drought resistance, and can be grown in pure stands.
254. Meade, F.M. 1954. Growth and survival of shortleaf pine and eastern redcedar in North Arkansas. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas, Arkansas Farm Research. 3(2): 4.
Comparative plantations of Pinus echinata and Juniperus virginiana were established on an abandoned field at the Livestock and Forestry Branch Station, Batesville, in 1948. On half the plots, competing vegetation was removed from an area 2 feet square round the transplant; on the other half, it was not. One-year-old stock was used, at 6 X 6 feet. Survival in both species was much better on prepared plots, but there was no appreciable difference in height growth under the two treatments. Average height of the pine at the end of the third season was 2-1/2 times that of the cedar, and it is therefore much better able to compete with coppicing hardwoods. The pine also survived a fire in 1950, which killed the cedar.
255. Meade, F.M. 1955. Converting low-grade hardwood stands to conifers in the Arkansas Ozarks. Bull. 551. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station. 26 p. 7 refs.
Pinus taeda, P. echinata, and Juniperus virginiana were planted on experimental plots in mixed hardwoods under different degrees of overstory. J. virginiana was unable to compete with hardwoods in any conditions. P. taeda did better than P. echinata. Survival of pines was not significantly affected by amount of overstory. Cleaning would be necessary to release pine from hardwood regrowth and weeds.
256. Miller, D.R.; Rosenberg, N.J.; Bagley, W.T. 1975. Wind reduction by a highly permeable tree shelterbelt (Populus deltoides, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus sylvestris). Agricultural Meteorology. 14(3): 321-333.
257. Minckler, L.S.; Ryker, R.A. 1959. Partial conversion of poor hardwood stands to conifers by planting. Tech. Pap. Columbus, OH: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Central States Forest Experiment Station. 9 p.
From experiments in planting Pinus echinata and Juniperus virginiana in clear-felled, partially cleared, and untouched poor hardwood stands in the Kaskaskia Experimental Forest, southern Illinois, necessary conditions for success were seen to be: (1) confining planting to the poorest ridges and upper slopes where hardwoods grow slowly; (2) killing the hardwood brush with 2,4,5-T before planting (either the entire stand for total conversion, or creating openings of not less than 1 1/2 to 2 times the height of the overstory for partial conversion). Subsequent release may be on a crop-tree basis, covering an area at least twice the height of competing hardwoods. Observations indicate that conifers should be released when competing hardwoods begin to shade the upper half of the crowns.
258. Mulhern, D.W.; Robel, R.J.; Furnes, J.C.; Hensley, D.L. 1989. Vegetation of waste disposal areas at a coal-fired power plant in Kansas. Journal of Environmental Quality. 18(3): 285-292. 25 refs.
In field trials over a 3-year period to determine if vegetative cover could be established without first adding topsoil to waste disposal sites, Agropyron elongatum (Elymus elongatus), Festuca arundinacea, Melilotus officinalis, Echinochloa crus-galli, Lespedeza stipulacea, Phragmites australis, Polygonum lapathifolium, Populus deltoides, Juniperus virginiana, Alnus glutinosa, Acer ginnala, Acer rubrum, and Robinia pseudoacacia were sown/planted on scrubber sludge and bottom ash sites amended with NPK fertilizer and hay, woodchips, or cattle manure. Bottom ash sites could not support vegetative growth even after amendment. Agropyron elongatum, F. arundinacea, M. officinalis, and E. crus-galli grew well on scrubber sludges, as did Populus deltoides and J. virginiana. Generally, the herbaceous plants grew best on scrubber sludge to which manure and fertilizer were added, and the trees survived and grew best on sludge amended with woodchips and fertilizer.
259. Munns, E.N.; Stoeckeler, J.H. 1946. How are the Great Plains shelterbelts? Journal of Forestry. 44(4): 237-257.
The Prairie States Forestry Project was in operation from 1934 to 1943. During that period, nearly 19,000 miles of shelterbelts were planted on about 33,000 farms. A survey of the plantings, made in 1944, covered 1,079 belts or a random sample of 3.6 percent of all belts planted. The project was a success in meeting the main purpose for which the belts were established, that of protection against the wind. For the area as a whole, 78 percent of the belts were rated as good or better, and only 10 percent were rated as unsatisfactory. Tree survival was generally good, ranging from 39 percent for ponderosa pine, the poorest, to 85 percent for boxelder (Acer negundo), the best. There was a direct relation between quality of belts, based on survival and growth, and the annual precipitation and quality of sites. Growth rate in the areas of better rainfall was 30-50 percent greater than in the more arid areas. The best planting sites were generally the deep sandy loam or loamy sand soils with deep moisture penetration. There was a striking differential in survival and growth rate in favor of sandy as opposed to heavy soil for many species. The most striking feature of the belts is their rapid height growth. They average about 7 years in age, and in North Dakota are 16 feet high, in Nebraska 20 feet, and in Texas 24 feet. In the southern Great Plains, a number of belts 7-10 years old are 25-40 feet high and are already very effective in reducing wind erosion. Annual growth rate is 2.9 feet for cottonwood (Populus sp.), 2.3 feet for Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), and about 1.3 feet for slower growing hardwoods such as green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica). Conifers such as ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) are making from 0.6 to 0.9 feet per year. Shrubs are growing at an average rate or 1.1 foot per year. Most of the belts 5-10 years old have complete stand closure in that part of the belt where the species are fast growing. A forest condition, with leaf mulch 1/2-1 inch deep, is developing in these rows. The chief problems are inadequate cultivation of many of the belts under 4 years of age (owing to shortage of labor) and cattle damage to 8.1 percent of all belts. Great need is now developing for silvicultural treatments, but no information is available on how to proceed without reducing the effectiveness of the belts. Research is needed on this and on management and replacement, development of hardier strains of planting stock, planting on more difficult soils and sites, and the formation of belts for special services.
260. Papadopol, V.; Pirvu, E.; Papadopol, C.S. 1964. The possibility of growing conifers in the Baragan plain. Revista Padurilor. 79(2): 60-63. Rumanian.
Gives data on survival and growth, 6-10 years after establishment, of Abies alba, A. concolor, Picea abies, P. pungens, Larix decidua, Pinus nigra, P. banksiana, P. strobus, Thuja plicata, and Juniperus virginiana, in the steppe conditions at Baragan research station.
261. Parker, J. 1951. Natural reproduction from redcedar. Journal of Forestry. 49(4): 285.
Observations in Duke Forest, North Carolina, where Juniperus virginiana regenerates naturally, showed that birds remove the fruit in winter, especially when snow is on the ground. In a mild winter the fruit remains on the trees till February and then drops to the ground, where some of it apparently germinates. Experiments by the author showed that seeds fed to doves were entirely destroyed by digestive action. Seeds swallowed by berry-eating birds such as thrushes, starlings, and waxwings, on the other hand, are not destroyed, but show improved germination. The redcedar reproduction that often occurs in hardwoods adjacent to opengrown redcedars is undoubtedly due to the action of such birds.
262. Parker, J. 1952. Establishment of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) by direct seeding. Journal of Forestry. 50(12): 914-917. 14 refs.
Direct sowing of J. virginiana on two different soils showed no differences between soils, better survival under open than under closed canopy, and much better establishment where litter was removed than where it was left undisturbed.
263. Pascovski, S. 1938. Notes on some exotic trees. Anal. Inst. Cerc. Exp. For. Serv. 1(4): 210-230. Rumanian.
Presents notes on Juniperus virginiana L., Platanus acerifolia Willd., and Gymnocladus dioica K. Koch, in the light of Rumanian experience.
264. Randel, G.L. 1959. Coniferous windbreak species and spacing tests at the Big Spring Field Station. Misc. Publ. 360. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. 2 p.
Tests started in 1932 were evaluated in 1958. Cupressus arizonica was best in survival and growth, with Juniperus virginiana a good second, Thuja orientalis and Juniperus scopulorum intermediate, and Pinus ponderosa and P. nigra failures (no drought resistance). Spacing at 12 feet within rows and 24 feet between rows gave better survival and slightly less height growth than 6 X 12.
265. Sander, D.H. 1970. Soil water and tree growth in a Great Plains windbreak. Soil Science Society of America. 110(2): 128-135. 11 refs.
In the context of maintaining the effectiveness of existing shelterbelts by replanting some of the rows, measurements of soil moisture to a depth of 11 feet and the basal area increment of nine tree species (Juniperus virginiana and eight broadleaved species) in a 10-row, east-west shelterbelt (planted in 1940) in Nebraska were made at monthly intervals in 1960-1963. Tree roots removed soil water to a suction of 15 bars throughout the (chestnut soil) profile measured, except from the B horizon, which had a higher clay content and bulk density and lower available P than the remainder. Snow accumulation was the major source of water; this was utilized early in the growing season. Populus deltoides showed the greatest basal area and height growth. Soil water supply is considered adequate for the establishment of young trees where old rows have been removed, but in the more arid areas to the west, replanting may need to be confined to years of abundant snowfall.
266. Seidel, K.W.; Brinkman, K.A. 1962. Mixed or pure walnut plantings on strip-mined land in Kansas? Tech. Pap. 187. Columbus, OH: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Central States Forest Experiment Station. 10 p. 3 refs.
Survival, growth, and form of Juglans nigra, 10 years after planting, were better in pure stands than in mixture with Robinia pseudoacacia; but when planted with Quercus macrocarpa, Juniperus virginiana, Platanus occidentalis, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica, J. nigra grew almost as well as in pure stands. Plantings in mixture with these species are recommended.
267. Steavenson, H.A.; Gearhart, H.E.; Curtis, R.L. 1943. Living fences and supplies of fence posts. Journal of Wildlife Mangement. 7: 257-261.
Some of the advantages of living hedges as opposed to wire fences are pointed out. Observations in Illinois suggest that insect damage is definitely reduced in areas where shelter exists for birds and parasitic insects. Formerly, Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) was the principal species used in fencing the prairies, and many data support the view that the beneficial effects of tall-growing Osage as a windbreak will offset the apparent sapping effect of the trees on crop yield. From the point of view of erosion control, plant barriers are also more satisfactory than wire fencing. The Asiatic rose, Rosa multiflora, although an exotic species, shows the greatest promise of fulfilling the requirements of a living fence. It has excellent cover qualities, produces quantities of fruit that persist during the winter and serve as a food reserve for birds, and compares favorably in survival and growth performance with any other shrub tried in Missouri or Illinois. In addition, it is less subject to leaf disease than the native Rosa setigera. Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) has also been used with success as a living fence. Thrifty hedgerows of this species may become a profitable farm crop. Data from several hedge-post harvests in northern Missouri showed a close correlation between the yield of posts and firewood and the character of the subsoil. Large yields were generally obtained from soils with a porous, friable, well-oxidized subsoil.
268. Stoeckeler, J.H. 1966. Trees for the Coulee Region. Wisconsin Conservation Bulletin. 31(1): 14-16.
In 1961 and 1962, 40,000 trees of 13 species (both conifers and hardwoods) were established on abandoned farmland and pastures on steep slopes in the Coulee Region, southwest Wisconsin. On sites with deep soil, Pinus strobus, P. resinosa, and Larix decidua were outstandingly successful. P. sylvestris, P. ponderosa, and P. nigra var. austriaca showed fair to good survival and growth (height 3-6 feet 4 years after planting), but the sites would be more profitably used for the more successful species. Picea abies, P. glauca, Juglans nigra, Fraxinus americana, and Quercus rubra survived well, but growth was slow and they proved sensitive to late spring frosts. On a steep, exposed, limestone-strewn, prairie-soil slope that had never carried high forest, Pinus nigra var. austriaca, P. ponderosa, P. sylvestris, and P. banksiana showed a survival of 52-78 percent in the third year. Juniperus virginiana is also a possibility for such sites. Transplants 3-4 years old, particularly of P. resinosa and P. strobus, survived better than seedlings where there was heavy weed, alfalfa, or clover growth. Planting in furrows 12 inches wide gave best survival on all sites.
269. Szonyi, L. 1957. The role of introduced species in the afforestation of sand areas in Hungary. Erdeszeti Kutatasok: 49-64. Hungarian.
Among the natural tree growth of these areas, the establishment of stands of Robinia, Scots and Austrian pine, and, as an understory to poplar, Celtis australis, should be considered. For single-stem and group mixtures, the viridis, caesia, and glauca varieties of Douglas fir, Pinus jeffreyi, the valuable poplars, some Salix species, Platanus orientalis, Gleditsia triacanthos, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Maclura pomifera, Juniperus virginiana, and Prunus serotina, promise good results. At the leeward base of the dunes, Scots pine with a well-developed understory of Prunus serotina is a dominant feature. On the driest slopes, a mixture of Scots pine and Robinia is the only possibility. The leeward slopes generally carry natural tree clumps, and in the most favorable sites here all the species mentioned may be planted.
270. Tuzson, J. 1943. Trials of some exotics for afforestation on the Great Plain of Hungary. Erdeszeti Lapok. 82(3, 4): 113-119, 151-162. Hungarian.
Presents notes and recommendations on numerous exotics, tried in the past at various places in the Great Hungarian Plain, and in the Mitra, many by the author himself, including: strongly recommended - Juniperus virginiana. The seed must be collected quickly in October-November to forestall migratory birds, which can strip a tree in a few hours. The wind scatters it easily too. Nursery sowings germinate only in the second year. Although the young trees are not delicate and develop well, careful transplanting with a ball of earth is necessary at 4-5 years old. Recommended for drift-sand and marshy wastes on the Plain and for parks.
271. USDA Forest Service. 1951. Underplanting. Rep. SO-22. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 4-6.
Underplanting tests have been made in poor upland hardwoods with loblolly, Virginia, slash, shortleaf and longleaf pines, and eastern redcedar. Second-year survival has been good for both seedlings released immediately after planting and those left unreleased, but released seedlings made nearly double the height growth. All species except longleaf pine and redcedar were attacked by Rhyacionia frustrana and Tetralopha robustella. Underplanting of valuable hardwoods has also given good results.
272. USDA Forest Service. 1952. Underplanting: North Mississippi. Rep. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 9-11.
Average height growth and survival for five species of pine and eastern redcedar planted under lowgrade upland hardwoods were greater during the second and third growing seasons for released than for unreleased seedlings. Damage by Rhyacionia frustrana was greater on released and that by Tetralopha robustella was greater on unreleased plots. Third-year height growth and survival of six hardwoods used in underplanting were also greater on released than on unreleased plots. Release before or immediately after planting is desirable.
273. USDA Forest Service. 1957. Survival of plantings in coastal plain bottomlands. Rep. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 63-64.
In a 3-year study in South Carolina on the underplanting of rundown bottomland hardwood sites, both with and without removal of shade, Quercus shumardii and Q. falcata var. pagodaefolia did well under all test conditions. Loblolly pine grew well on cleared bottoms and terraces, while Liriodendron tulipifera and Juniperus virginiana survived best on terrace sites. One year of shade tended to improve early survival of all planting stock except loblolly.
274. USDA Forest Service. 1958. Species tests on old fields (in S. Illinois). Rep. Columbus, OH: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Central States Forest Experiment Station: 2-3.
Four conifer and three hardwood species were planted in badly eroded upland old fields in 1947. After 11 years, all the conifers had a survival of not more than 84 percent, and average heights ranged from 9.5 feet for eastern redcedar to 23.9 feet for loblolly pine, with shortleaf and white pine intermediate. Survival of the hardwoods (tulip tree, white ash, and black walnut) ranged from 35 to 66 percent, and the average height ranged from 3.5 to 8 feet. In these, but not in the conifers, height and survival were related to the soil depth, and these hardwoods are not recommended for planting on badly eroded sites.
275. Ustinovskaja, L.T. 1952. The Staro-Berdyansk plantations. Priroda. 41(1): 112. Russian.
These cover 927 hectares in the droughty steppes bordering the Sea of Azov, the soil being loamy sand, sandy loam, and sand. Oak stands make up 70 percent of the area, the oldest being 45 years old. Some 35-year-old oak stands reach 17 m in height. In mixed oak/pine stands, oak at 18 years grows better than pine. Ash gives satisfactory results only on the lower sites. The introduction of Gleditsia is not warranted. The 75-year-old stands of Juniperus virginiana have an average height of 8 m, average diameter of 16 cm, and maximum diameter of 26 cm. This species is drought-resistant and frost-hardy.
276. VanHaverbeke, D.F. 1973. Renovating old deciduous windbreaks with conifers. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 28(2): 65-68. 15 refs.
Reports a study on the feasibility of removing several outer rows of a 10-row deciduous shelterbelt (established in Nebraska 30-40 years ago as part of the Great Plains Shelterbelt Project) and replacing them with conifers. Four rows on the south side of the shelterbelt were felled in 1963, and the stumps were sprayed to prevent coppice growth before machine planting 2 + transplants in four rows (from north to south) consisting respectively of Juniperus virginiana, Pinus nigra, P. ponderosa, and J. virginiana between the stumps in 1964. Competing vegetation was controlled by various treatments involving mechanical cultivation, mowing or chemical spraying, repeated at intervals during the 5-year period after planting. Data are tabulated for seedling mortality, and the percent replacement necessary, by treatment and species. Mortality was heaviest during the first year after planting for all treatments and species; mortality of P. nigra remained high, due mainly to extremely dry conditions near the residual shelterbelt trees and to damage by rabbits. The results are evaluated and effects on the residual trees are discussed. Recommendations include the planting of Pinus nigra not less than 30 feet from residual trees, and planting of J. virginiana to form the innermost and outermost rows of the new planting.
277. VanHaverbeke, D.F. 1977. Conifers for single-row field windbreaks. Res. Pap. RM-196. Lincoln, NE: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 38 refs.
Each of five species combinations: (a) Pinus ponderosa, (b) P. ponderosa and Juniperus virginiana, (c) P. sylvestris, (d) P. sylvestris and J. virginiana, and (e) J. virginiana were planted in north central Nebraska with 2+1 seedlings at spacings of 4, 6, and 8 feet and were either fertilized after planting or left unfertilized. Survival after 12 growing seasons was over 95 percent for all treatments. Height increment of all species was best at the 4-foot spacing. Combinations (c), (d), and (e) had the best height increment. Fertilizers had no effect on survival or growth. The most suitable species was J. virginiana, followed by P. sylvestris, then P. ponderosa. Recommendations are made for species combinations, spacings, and thinning regimes for the early establishment and sustained effectiveness of shelterbelts.
278. VanHaverbeke, D.F.; Boldt, C.E. 1968. Vigor and density of shelterbelt conifers can be improved. Journal of Forestry. 66(3): 187-192. 7 refs.
Rows of Pinus ponderosa and Juniperus virginiana were released after nearly 20 years of suppression by hardwoods in five Nebraska shelterbelts. Diameter and height increment, foliage density, and occurrence of mortality were correlated with degree of release. Release caused a reduction of incidence of Dothistroma pini and of damage by Rhyacionia frustrana on pine, and an increase of Gymnosporangium juniperi rust.
279. Volovink, S.V. 1979. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), the oldest planting in the southern part of the USSR. Priroda Moskva. Nauka. (5). 121 p. Russian.
280. Wells, C.G. 1961. Underplanting tests in pine stands. Res. Note SE-160. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 2 p.
In a trial of underplanting a 19-year loblolly pine plantation, recently thinned to 119 ft2/acre, with 1-year seedlings of Liriodendron tulipifera, Quercus rubra, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Juniperus virginiana, survival of the hardwoods after one growing season was excellent, but not that of J. virginiana. Despite fertilizing with N and P, L. tulipifera showed deficiency symptoms even on the highest-dosage plots.
281. Williston, H.L. 1962. Conifers for conversion planting in north Mississippi. Tree Planters Notes. 54: 5-7.
In February 1949 a study was established near Oxford, Mississippi, to compare the survival and growth of Pinus taeda, P. palustris, P. echinata, P. elliottii, P. virginiana, and Juniperus virginiana underplanted in low-grade upland hardwoods, with and without release before planting. Ten-year results are reported. P. taeda appears to be the best species for this purpose; where released, it has survived better and has outgrown the other five conifers. It has also proved surprisingly tolerant of overhead competition.
282. Williston, H.L.; Huckenpahler, B.J. 1958. Response of six conifers in North Mississippi underplantings. Journal of Forestry. 56(2): 135-137.
Seedlings (age not stated) of Pinus echinata, P. taeda, P. palustris, P. elliottii, P. virginiana and Juniperus virginiana were underplanted separately in 1/10-acre sub-plots in low-grade upland stands of Quercus marilandica, Q. stellata, and Carya sp., with and without release. The average survival and height of the different conifers at 5 years are tabulated, and the effects of release, rainfall, soil type, and insect and animal damage on height and survival are discussed. Results showed that conifer seedlings given immediate release from hardwood competition were almost three times as tall as those on unreleased plots. P. taeda was the best species for dry loess ridges; P. echinata and P. virginiana gave good site protection and survived better than P. taeda on droughty sites. P. palustris and P. elliottii are not recommended for planting in northern Mississippi. J. virginiana is useful for soil improvement but gets severely browsed by deer.
283. Wright, E.; Wells, H.R. 1948. Tests on the adaptability of trees and shrubs to shelterbelt planting on certain Phymatotrichum root rot infested soils of Oklahoma and Texas. Journal of Forestry. 46(4): 256-262. 6 refs.
Six years of study on a number of soil types showed that only a few of the tree and shrub species used were markedly resistant to root rot and none were immune. Most resistant were Celtis occidentalis, Sapindus drummondii, Chilopsis linearis, Juniperus virginiana, and J. scopulorum; Ailanthus altissima was somewhat less resistant. The following species were highly susceptible and should not be planted on infected soils: Ulmus americana, U. pumila, Gleditsia triacanthos, Gymnocladus dioicus, Maclura pomifera, Elaeagnus angustifolia, and Populus sargentii. Shelterbelts on freely permeable sandy soils lost much less to root rot than similar nearby plantations on less permeable soils. Indications were that use of a checker board or alternate arrangement of planting, rather than rows all of one species, might still further reduce losses from root rot even for resistant species.
284. Zhang, J.L. 1980. Introduction and acclimation of Juniperus virginiana from North America, Canada. Forest Technology Newsletter, Peking. 5: 8-9. Chinese.
285. Zohar, Y.; Brandle, J. 1978. Shelter effects on growth and yield of corn in Nebraska. La-Yaaran. 28: 1-4, 11-20, 46. 12 refs. Hebrew.
Plots (a) protected or (b) unprotected by Populus deltoides /Juniperus virginiana windbreaks were
studied during summer 1976. Soil and plant moisture content, xylem water potential of roots,
vegetative growth, and average yields per plant and per unit area were higher in (a); flowering
started 1 week earlier in (a).
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