An Annotated Bibliography of Eastern Redcedar

Wildlife Relationships

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583. Belthoff, J.R.; Ritchison, G. 1990. Roosting behavior of postfledging eastern screech owls. AUK. 107(3): 567-579.

We examined roosting behavior of adult and juvenile eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) during the postfledging period using radiotelemetry. We located 1,107 screech-owl roost sites in 39 species of trees, shrubs, and vines. Nearly half (48 percent) were in eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), shagbark hickory (Carya ovata), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), and black walnut (Juglans nigra). Owls used open limb roosts (46 percent), tangle roosts (36 percent), and conifer roosts (17 percent). Tree cavities were used rarely (n = 3). Open limb roosts were more common early in the postfledging period, whereas use of tangles for roosting increased later in the season. The mean roost site was 10.2 + 0.2 m high in a tree 14.2 + 0.2 m tall with a d.b.h. (diameter at breast height) of 23.8 + 0.4 cm. Based on a random sample of 800 potential roost trees, screech-owls used significantly shorter trees than those available. However, we found no significant difference in mean d.b.h. between used and available trees. On average, screech-owls roosted 252 + 5.3 m from their nests and moved 64 + 3.5 m between daily roost sites. Juvenile and adult owls differed little in selection of roost sites, although juveniles used a greater variety of trees. Paired adults did not differ in roost-site use. The mean distance between roost sites of young owls and their parents (both male and female) increased significantly after the fifth week postfledging. After this period, juvenile owls roosted unaccompanied by adults much more often, which suggests young gain some independence from adults. We noted significant differences among families for all roost-site variables, with most variation explained by differences in areas occupied by families. Entire families roosted together in the same tree 31 + 7.5 percent of the time (range: 16.7-51.5 percent). Coefficients of association of roost sites between adults and their young were similar for both members of a pair. We suggest that adult eastern screech-owls do not divide their broods.

584. Bugbee, R.E.; Riegel, A. 1945. Seasonal food choices of the fox squirrel in Western Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 48(2): 199-203. 3 refs.

The following choice of food by Sciurus niger rufiventer was noted at Hays, Ellis County, Kansas: Late summer and autumn: nipple galls on Celtis occidentalis, Juniperus virginiana berries, pods of Gleditsia triacanthos, walnuts, bark of Elaeagnus angustifolia, and seeds of Cucurbita foetidissima. Summer: petiole galls on Populus deltoides or P. sargentii, seeds of Celtis occidentalis. Winter and spring: seeds and buds of Ulmus americana, exudations on the branches of walnut, and fruit of E. angustifolia. The only serious damage was to E. angustifolia. The branches stripped of bark died, though the trees as a whole recovered.

585. Clapp, J.R. 1977. Wildlife habitat evaluation of the unchannelized Missouri River in South Dakota. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University, Department of Wildlife and Fish. 114 p. M.S. thesis. 80 refs.

Areas of eight habitats were identified, delineated, and measured along the unchannelized Missouri River in South Dakota. Agricultural and urban developments existed on 60 percent of the land within 1 km of the river. Six habitat types made up the non-developed land in the study area: cottonwood-dogwood (16 percent), cottonwood-willow (9 percent), elm-oak (7 percent), cattail marsh (3 percent), sand dune (3 percent), and sand bar (1 percent). All non-developed habitats except sand bar were sampled to obtain vegetative composition and to determine their value to wildlife. The value of each habitat to nine faunal groups of wildlife was subjectively rated from 0 (poor) to 10 (excellent). An interspersion value was added to arrive at total habitat value. Cattail marshes were typically monospecific stands of narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia) in slow-moving, shallow water. This habitat was rated highest in its value to wildlife (8.9), and was especially important for aquatic furbearers, waterfowl, other water and marsh birds, and herptiles. Cottonwood-dogwood habitat generally consisted of three layers of vegetation: eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), redosier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), and poison ivy (Toxicodendron rydbergii). A rating of 7.9 was given this habitat, and conditions were good for all terrestrial faunal groups except herptiles. Cottonwood-willow stands were dominated by eastern cottonwood and various willows (Salix spp.) and occurred in a clumped distribution. Woody vegetation was interspersed with open areas covered with grasses, forbs, sedges (Carex spp.), or horsetail (Equisetum spp.), forming a system of edges. The total habitat value for cottonwood-willow communities was 7.5; big game and upland game birds found conditions excellent there. Elm-oak habitat was comprised of a wide variety of trees; the most important were slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa), box elder (Acer negundo), and eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana). Grazing of the understory and ground cover reduced the value of this habitat to most types of wildlife (6.7). Sand dunes were deposited by floods occurring prior to the closure of Fort Randall Dam and Lewis and Clark Dam. Vegetation consisted of older cottonwoods probably existing prior to the floods and younger cottonwood/willow stands, interspersed with bare sand and patches of alfalfa. Conditions were fair for most species of wildlife (5.3), with terrestrial birds and herptiles receiving the most benefit. Future alterations of the unchannelized river in the study area should be planned with an objective of leaving areas of all six habitats on non-developed land to maintain the diversity of wildlife presently found there.

586. Crawford, H.S., Jr. 1961. Eastern redcedar. In: Deer browse plants of southern forests. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 34-35.

Describes eastern redcedar's site requirements, susceptibility to fire, growth habits of foliage, use by deer, use of berries by wildlife, durability of wood, and aggressiveness on poor range and croplands.

587. Dunkeson, R.L. 1955. Deer range appraisal for the Missouri Ozarks. Journal of Wildlife Management. 19: 358-364.

Eastern redcedar and shortleaf pine have been destructively browsed during winter, both rank low in palatability, and browsing was heaviest during mast shortages.

588. Gawlik, D.E.; Bildstein, K.L. 1990. Reproductive success in nesting habitat of loggerhead shrikes in north-central South Carolina. Wilson Bulletin. 102(1): 37-48. 25 refs.

A study during 1986-1987 showed that 63 percent of nests of loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus) were in redcedar (Juniperus virginiana). Shrikes nesting in redcedar fledged one more young per nest than shrikes nesting in other tree species. The reported relatively high reproductive success of loggerhead shrikes does not explain the recent decline in shrike populations in the region.

589. Grand, J.B.; Mirarchi, R.E. 1988. Habitat use by recently fledged mourning doves in east central Alabama. Journal of Wildlife Management. 52(1): 153-157. 9 refs.

Conifer (Juniperus virginiana and Pinus taeda) stands with low basal area and stem densities, large amounts (more than 50 percent) of unoccupied space from ground cover to midstory, and dense clumps of vegetation in strata less than 3 m tall provided good habitat for recently fledged Zenaida macroura. The maintenance of such stands of conifers may be important to fledgling survival.

590. Hahn, H.C., Jr. 1945. Cedar important to wildlife. Texas Game and Fish. 3(12): 27-28.

Discusses the spread of eastern redcedar on grassland due to absence of fire and to excessive grazing. Although it is not important as a food for domestic livestock, eastern redcedar is very valuable in the prevention of erosion and as habitat and winter food for wildlife.

591. Halls, L.K. 1977. Eastern redcedar/Juniperus virginiana L. (Woody plants as wildlife food, species). Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-16. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station: 105-107.

592. Halls, L.K.; Crawford, H.S., Jr. 1960. Deer-forest habitat relationships in North America. Journal of Wildlife Management. 24: 387-395.

When deer populations are heavy, young redcedar may have a hedged appearance from overbrowsing.

593. Lochmiller, R.L.; Boggs, J.F.; McMurry, S.T.; Leslie, D.M., Jr.; Engle, D.M. 1991. Response of cottontail rabbit populations to herbicide and fire applications on cross timbers rangeland. Journal of Range Management. 44(2): 150-155.

Knowledge of how resident wildlife populations respond to brush management strategies is especially limited for rangelands in the cross timbers vegetation type of Oklahoma. We examined how cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus) density and habitat use were influenced by applications of tebuthiuron or triclopyr, with and without annual burning, on cross timbers rangeland. Line transect flush-counts, mark-recapture live trapping, and fecal pellet counts were used to evaluate seasonal differences in population density among five brush control treatments. Cottontail rabbits (n = 225) were flushed along 362 km of line transects during five census periods. Density in winter was consistently lower than in summer for all treatments, except for the untreated control in winter 1987. Line transect density estimates ranged from 0 to 1.975 rabbits/ha and suggested that herbicide and annual burning treatments had a positive influence on cottontail rabbit populations compared to untreated controls. Mark-recapture density estimates did not differ among treatments. Fecal pellet counts were greater on herbicide-treated pastures than on an untreated control in both spring and fall. Prairie-eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) and forest-prairie ecotone habitats were utilized greater than expected by cottontail rabbits. Mature hardwood overstory and mixed-brush habitats were avoided. Tebuthiuron and triclopyr effectively decreased hardwood overstory and increased preferred habitats for cottontail rabbits.

594. Phillips, F.J. 1910. The dissemination of junipers by birds. Forestry Quarterly. 8: 60-73.

Birds are responsible for most of the dissemination of the junipers. Lists birds that eat juniper berries.

595. Read, R.A. 1948. Winter browsing of cedar by Ozark deer. For. Notes. 55. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station.

During the winter of 1947-1948, white-tailed deer in heavy concentrations browsed almost three-fourths of all cedar trees under 5.5 feet in height, eating 85 percent of the terminal height growth these trees had made during the previous growing season.

596. Segelquist, C.A.; Green, W.E. 1968. Deer food yields in four Ozark forest types. Journal of Wildlife Management. 32(2): 330-337. 7 refs.

Sparsely timbered redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) glades and bottomland hardwoods produced the most herbage and evergreen browse. Browsing was heaviest where mast was scarce. The more densely stocked hardwood types grew less forage, but were the main source of winter food in good mast years. Average mast yields were 5-10 times greater than average winter browse yields.

597. Swengel, S.R.; Swengel, A.B. 1992. Roosts of northern saw-whet owls in southern Wisconsin. Condor. 94(3): 699-706.

We described 623 roosts of northern saw-whet owls (Aegolius acadicus) in southern Wisconsin from 1986 to 1990. Roosts were in seven species of trees, with 98 percent in white (Picea glauca) and Norway (P. abies) spruces, red (Pinus resinosa) and jack (P. banksiana) pines, and eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana). Mean roost height was 4.05 plus or minus; 2.21 m (range 0.15-11.20 m) in a 9.15 plus or minus; 3.40 m tall tree. Roosts averaged 46.6 plus or minus; 43.4 cm from the trunk on a 150.4 plus or minus; 69.6 cm long limb. Roost characteristics varied according to tree species, size, and shape. Mean roost height ranged from 1.5 plus or minus; 0.4 m in eastern redcedars to 6.9 plus or minus; 1.3 m in red pines. Roost height correlated positively with tree height and negatively with distance of roost from trunk. Distance of roost from trunk correlated positively with limb length. Directions of roosts relative to the trunk were random. Mean roost height and height of roost tree increased with time. Most roosts afforded good cover from above and most sides. Saw-whet owls chose roosts that provide concealment, not those of a particular height. Roosts conferred thermal benefits on owls. Behavior of roosting saw-whet owls suggests that the owls' motionlessness when approached by humans is a camouflaging strategy.

598. Thompson, F.R., III; Fritzell, E.K. 1988. Ruffed grouse winter roost site preference and influence on energy demands. Journal of Wildlife Management. 52(3): 454-460. 25 refs.

A study at the Ashland Wildlife Research Area, Missouri, showed that ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) had a strong preference for roosting in Juniperus virginiana canopies. Roosts in and under J. virginiana provided less thermal benefit than snow roosts (rarely available), but more benefit than deciduous roosts. Management implications are discussed.

599. Thompson, F.R., III; Fritzell, E.K. 1989. Habitat use, home range, and survival of territorial male ruffed grouse. Journal of Wildlife Management. 53(1): 15-21. 27 refs.

Habitat preference, home range, daily movement, and survival of territorial male ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) were investigated in the Ashland Wildlife Research Area in central Missouri during 1984-1987. The study area comprised a variety of habitats, including oak (Quercus sp.)/hickory (Carya sp.) pole and sawtimber stands (63 percent), mixed sapling to pole-size eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana)/hardwood stands (16 percent), pine (Pinus spp.) plantations (4 percent), open areas (9 percent) and 1- to 4-year-old clearcuts (2 percent of the area). Thirty-two male grouse were equipped with radio transmitters, and an average of 55 locations per grouse was obtained. Ruffed grouse did not show strong habitat preference in locating their home range, but within their home range grouse strongly preferred mixed cedar/hardwood areas during spring-summer and autumn-winter.

600. Thompson, F.R., III; Fritzell, E.K. 1989. Habitat differences between perennial and transient drumming sites of ruffed grouse. Journal of Wildlife Management. 53(3): 820-823.

We determined habitat differences among perennial, transient, and random non-drumming sites of ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) from vegetation measurements. Perennial drumming sites had more eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) stems per hectare, greater eastern redcedar canopy closure, greater understory density, and less deciduous canopy closure than transient and non-drumming sites. Vegetation characteristics of transient sites were more similar to non-drumming than perennial sites. We suggest perennial drumming sites were in higher quality habitat, and the low dense cover provided by eastern redcedar is an important component of grouse habitat in areas without suitable hardwood regeneration in Missouri.

601. Tyler, J.D. 1992. Nesting ecology of the loggerhead shrike in southwestern Oklahoma. Wilson Bulletin. 104(1): 95-104.

Loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) nests were studied in southwestern Oklahoma (U.S.A.) from 1985 through 1988. Pairing began in late February to early March, and completed nests were found from 13 March to 20 June. Nesting peaked in mid-April, with second nestings from late May to late June. Average length of the nesting season was 11 weeks. Almost one-third of all nests were built in Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) trees, but netleaf hackberry (Celtis reticulata), Chinese elm (Ulmus pumila), and eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) were also used frequently. Mean nest height was 3 m, and average clutch size was 5.8. At least one egg hatched in 84 percent of clutches. A mean of 16.9 days was required for incubation, and the average fledging period was 16.8 days. Probability of survival using Mayfield's (1961, 1975) method was 46 percent.

602. Van Dersal, W.R. 1938. Utilization of woody plants as food by wildlife. Transactions of the 3d North American Conference. 1938: 768-775.

Seventy wildlife species were reported using eastern redcedar, the widest use of any woody plants in North America.

603. White, J.; Lloyd, M.; Karban, R. 1982. Why don't periodical cicadas normally live in coniferous forests? Environmental Entomology. 11(2): 475-482. 20 refs.

An unusual occurrence of Magicicada spp. in a white pine-hemlock (Pinus strobus -Tsuga canadensis) plantation in Ohio is documented. Historical information suggests that cicadas invaded this plantation when intermixed deciduous species were available for oviposition. Subsequent studies showed that hatching success is far better in deciduous plants than in pines. The reduction in pines is attributed to resin secretion, which seals the egg-nests shut and prevents the eggs from hatching. Of the three evergreen species examined, hatching success was poorest in white pine, reasonably good in juniper (Juniperus virginiana), and intermediate in hemlock. The dense emergence found in the pine-hemlock plantation indicates that the nymphs may be able to feed on the roots of hemlocks or pines or both. If so, then poor hatching success in resinous twigs may be the only barrier preventing Magicicada spp. from becoming economic pests in coniferous plantations and forests.

604. Whitford, P.C.; Whitford, P.B. 1988. A note on nurse trees and browsing. Ann Arbor, MI: Michigan Botanical Club. 27(4): 107-110.

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